Books Read June 2020

Francis Hodgson Burnett: The Secret Garden, p/b, London, Scholastic, 2015 (1911)


Burnett was English born but grew up and published in the USA. The Secret Garden was  not a great success at first but has become an absolute favourite throughout the C20th with many readers old and young after its slow start. Only in recent years has its appeal cooled as its sentimentality, although not maudling, certainly has a feel of an earlier era.  Harry Potter and the voluminous adventures in the Diary of a Wimpy Kid have taken over!  Nevertheless for those students who take up the challenge, especially girls, the unique charm and challenge of the story can still be compelling.

The heroine, English girl Mary Lennox’s early and very spoilt childhood in British India was radically altered early in her life following the death of her parents in a cholera pandemic. Sent to England to stay with her wealthy uncle in the vast Misselthwaite Manor House on the moor,  the arrogant and petulant child was in for a shock.  Her Uncle, Mr Craven, who was a hunchback was also grieving. He had lost his wife in childbirth and the shock turned him into a deep depressive. He handed over his son Colin, who survived the birth,  to the care of nurses and spent years of his life travelling in Europe. His son became a lonely and disagreeable child who managed to persuade himself that he would become a hunchback like his father and turned himself into an imperious and unpleasant invalid. Mr Craven treated his new ward with even less respect not even meeting her for some time and taking no care at all of her education or situation.

The secret garden was a walled garden much loved by Mr Craven’s wife, and no-one was permitted to enter it. The bored Mary discovered the garden aided by an old gardener retainer and the hero of the story, a fourteen year old local nature lover Dickon, a child with a natural love of the moor, of gardening and of the birds and animals of the moor.  Needless to say there was much work to be done not only with the garden but also the character and health of Mary and Colin. There is an old fashioned Christian, almost heathen, spirituality in this novel of adventure, healing and change.  Once begun it is still hard to put down.   4 stars 

Ferenc Máté: The Hills of Tuscany: A New Life in an Old Land: A Memoir,  p/b, London,  Flamingo, 1998 

The Hills of Tuscany

This account of a young couple who have travelled far and wide across the world, finally settling down in Montepulciano in Tuscany is a very special book for me. I read this book when my only experience of Tuscany was a one day stop in Florence on a Trafalgar tour. I was captivated when I read Máté’s account of the light, hills, food, climate,  trades,  art,  people and mood of Tuscany and I determined to return for more than one day. Since then Ann and I have visited Tuscany many times staying for weeks at a time. Montepulciano was a special place for me on one of those trips, and the steep walk up the main street to the piazza is to die for with its village shops, Etruscan ruins, interesting churches and the stunning view at the top.  The little Church of San Biago on its promontory outside the town walls looking over a vast expanse of forest, farmland and villages is breathtaking and I have returned to its silence more than once. It is amazing how many authors, art lovers and travellers turn to Tuscany and its villages for inspiration. This is a book to savour, taste, laugh about and be inspired.  5 stars and counting.

Edgar Rice Burroughs: Tarzan of the Apes, p/b, Camberwell, Penguin Red Classics, 2008 (1914).


Edgar Rice Burroughs struck gold with his completely improbable yarn about Tarzan the forest dwelling wild strong man of the African jungle and his unlikely romance with Jane Porter. His success spawned another 26 or so Tarzan stories and a number of movie credits.  The writing shoots along at a galloping pace from start to finish and is pitched at about 10 -14 year olds with a bit of odd-ball science thrown in. Tarzan of the Apes is a Eurocentric, biologically confused, educationally impossible, sexist, racist, scientifically incorrect, in places saccharinely sweet, in others appallingly violent, romp through darkest Africa written by a man who never travelled to Africa. Nevertheless once started it is hard to put down and Burroughs even manages to keep us wondering in the final paragraph about whether Jane will  say yes or no to Tarzan’s proposal of marriage. What more can I say?  2 stars.

Julia Baird: Phosphorescence: On Awe, Wonder & Things that Sustain you when the World Goes Dark,  h/b, Sydney, HarperCollins, 2020 

There’s a touch of the Jordan Petersons  in Australian Julia Baird’s latest book..they both are inspired by underwater creatures, they both have practical and significant rules for life, both of their books are footnoted with extensive and precise accuracy, both have been through bouts of  very serious medical crises and both communicate an edgy Christian faith.

Julia Baird, glamorous co-anchor of ABC’s The Drum is a writer of no mean credentials including a Law Degree and Ph.D in History from Sydney University, Columnist and Senior Editor of New York’s Newsweek for ten years and author of several books including her recent highly regarded and meticulously researched Victoria The Queen. Somehow or other, whilst achieving these things she seems to have spent a large amount of her life either dancing or being underwater, as well as raising two children.

Phosphoresence is in some ways a response to the very dark places indeed she has been in following three separate and desperate bouts against an invasive but non-lethal cancer illness. In a nutshell the book is a call to us all to regarde! to pay attention in our lives and to seek awe in the ordinary and at the edge; to live kindly and deliberately This advice emerges strongly in two separate amazing letters, one each to her son and her daughter which repay reading again and again.

For the rest phosphoresce comes from cuttlefish with their three hearts, from silence, from long-standing friendships, forest bathing, massive storms, space and the beauty of the universe, celebrating the temporary, accepting imperfection, letting yourself go, finding your own voice, from freudenfreud instead of schadenfreude (being glad not sad about the success of others), from neurotic and loyal dogs, by “Ert” (a sense of purpose in life), by art and creativity, by savouring, by hope and by embracing doubt along with many other things too many to mention.

Along the way Baird introduces us to a host of poets, philosophers, writers, survivors, scientists, spacemen and women, business tycoons and novelists. All my favourites are here including Rilke, D H Lawrence, Helen Garner, Tim Winton and Simone Weil, but there are many others, poets especially,  I am looking forward to finding and reading more of the lesser known poets she quotes who provide an opening to phosphoresce through their liminal writing. 

The two final chapters focussing on the church (especially her own Sydney Anglican Church (albeit its edgy end) will repay careful reading. I was especially touched by her tribute to her close friend the late Bishop John McIntyre and his work in both Redfern and Gippsland. Baird encourages us to be less judgmental and more willing to shut up and listen to the hurts, needs and searching of those outside our comfortable churches. A member of General Synod during the ordination of women debate, Baird provides a thoughtful and challenging reflection on a defeat which clearly still rankles with many Sydney lay women.  

If  you can cope with one more book during your Covid lockdown I recommend this one. It will change the way you live!  5 stars

Rabin Alameddine: An Unnecessary Woman, p/b, Melbourne, Text Publishing, 2014

Jordanian born to Lebanese Druze parents Rabin Alameddine grew up in both Beirut and Kuwait. At 17 he went to live in England and later moved to California and now splits his life between San Francisco and Beirut.  He holds degrees in Business and Engineering but works as a painter and writer. An Unnecessary Woman,  unusually for a male writer,  is the very personal and intimate story of a divorced and childless woman living in a dilapidated ground story flat in war-torn Beirut. Aeliya Saleh managed to keep her husband’s flat in Beirut after her husband left and she took up work managing a second hand bookshop from which she borrowed, stole or bought and then read a very substantial collection of books from a wide variety of  authors.

Through this job and her facility in English, French and Arabic Aeliya develops a hobby of translating literary classics and other texts, from French and English into Arabic. Over the course of her life she amasses some 31 of these hand written translations which she stores in boxes in a tiny backroom of her flat with no intention of publishing them  She also develops a keen interest in music with the help of a local Record Store owner and builds up a sizeable collection. Aeliya is a shy introvert who prefers the Beirut museum to the company of other women or men with the exception of a longstanding friendship with a sister-in-law Hannah. The narrative is told largely in the first person but occasionally drifts into third person commentary especially when it comes to literary criticism of authors and their good and bad books.

This novel is laced with a vast array of  literary and musical references and quotations  (about 280, roughly counting) which the reader will find either disconcerting, wonderful or very annoying and interruptive depending upon taste. Suffice to say that a sub-title of this book could be a survey of the early to late C20th European and American novel (with the deliberate omission of German novelists!). This novel is both humorous and at times quite serious and its dramatic conclusion explores the edges of the instability of mental strength in old age. 4 stars. (but I love books about books!)

Richard Foster:  Streams of Living Water: Celebrating the Great Traditions of  Christian Faith, p/b, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 2019 (1998)

Richard Foster’s book deserves its new  imprint. It is such an impressive piece of writing. In six amazing chapters he identifies six  significant streams of Christian faithfulness…contemplative, holiness, charismatic, social justice, evangelical and incarnational/sacramental traditions.

Each section has three heroes ..a figure from history, a figure from the Bible and a C20th example; The writing is incredibly gripping and not too academic with details left to very impressive footnotes. Some of the stories are heart-breaking including aspects of the life of the mother of John and Charles Wesley.  There is a richness in his writing which readers  will remember from Celebration of Discipline but there is also deep wisdom,  a compelling and helpful  Christian maturity and common sense and very powerful examples.

Foster carefully notes the strengths and the weaknesses of each tradition with thoughtful comment. The figures he chooses as examples for each tradition are sometimes well known like Bonhoeffer but also less known but so powerful like John Woolman. In addition there is a thirty page punchy history of the whole church; detailed pen-pictures of about 30 individuals for each tradition and an excellent index to match the extensive footnotes.

The key figures given detailed and careful treatment (with appropriate extensive bibliographies) include: St Anthony, the apostle John, Frank C. Laubach (the Contemplative tradtion); Phoebe Warrall Palmer, James, the Brother of Jesus, Bonhoeffer (the Holiness tradition); St Francis of Assissi, the Apostle Paul, William Joseph Seymour (the Charismatic tradition); John Woolman, the prophet Amos, Dorothy Day, (The Social Justice tradition); Augustine, the Apostle Peter, Billy Graham, (the Evangelical tradition); Susanna Annesley, Bezalel, Dag Hammarskjöld, (the Incarnational tradition). 

Although a demanding and challengingl read I could not put this book down and I would count it certainly in my top five Christian books that I have ever read and I have read one or two!   It is not particularly well-known which is a tragedy. It is a long time since I have read a book which so genuinely encouraged me in my personal faith in Christ and hope for the Church. 5 stars and counting.



John Buchan: The Thirty-Nine Steps, p/b, Camberwell, Penguin, 2005 (1915) 

Scot John Buchan became one of England’s favourite sons, achieving Greats at Oxford as well as the Newdigate Prize for poetry and graduating in law and working as a barrister and becoming a member of Parliament.  He was a well travelled soldier, reporter and writer, finally becoming Governnor General of Canada. He wrote many swashbuckling novels of action as well as historical biography. The novel which put him on the literary map was The Thirty-Nine Steps which has aged well and holds its tension and power until the final pages. It is a spy  tale of intrigue, endurance and courage, and the hero’s exploits, although unlikely, are told with such graphic descriptive power that the reader remains a believer. The novel is set in England and Scotland  immediately before the First World War  and is difficult to put down, once commenced. This Penguin edition comes with useful notes which helps with the Scottish accent.   4 stars.

Jeanine Cummins: American Dirt, p/b, London, Tinder/Headline, 2019  


Exceptionally well-written account of the Mexican drug wars and cartels and the flight of vast numbers of Central Americans to the USA. The characters are fictional but the trauma, dangers and hardships would be immigrants is accurately and savagely documented. Lydia and her eight year old son Luca are the centre of the story but there many other key players especially the two Honduran teenage girls Soledad and Rebeca who form a travel team of four.  The horror of boarding the roof of moving trains, the vicious profiteering of murderous illegal agents and vigilante groups feeding off immigrants, the stern American repatriation rules, the cheapness of life in a city like Apaculpo and much more besides all keep the blood racing in this non-stop novel. 

 I think if is fair to say that this is the fastest read I have ever had, a testimony I see from the back cover that I share with John Grisham. In one sense the story is a true horror story of the misery of the 70.8  million displaced persons world-wide. In another sense it is a story of the triumph of the human spirit against a very vicious enemy. This is not a Christian book but the survival of many would be immigrants would clearly not be possible without the kindness and courage of individual Roman Catholic priests and other Catholic doctors and workers in refugee centres and in private homes  in Mexico and Central America. Once started, impossible to put down! 5 stars. 


Roger Scruton: Fools, Frauds and Firebrands: Thinkers of the New Left, pb, London, Bloomsbury,2016

Philosopher, writer and polymath Roger Scruton, who sadly died earlier this year, was one of the few public intellectuals of recent times to have the courage to call out the often unreadable and sometimes nonsensical writings of European Left writers of the late C20th and early C21st. His writing in this area came at some personal cost both to his university career and to his ability to get published although happily he managed to overcome this challenge. He published over fifty books in his lifetime on a remarkable range of subjects at a very high level indeed including works on art, architecture, aesthetics, politics, Conservatism,  beauty, psychology, philosophy and philosophers and the history of philosophy.  Scruton lectured at Cambridge and several US universities but his major contribution to academic life was through his writing.                                                                                                          

A Key component of Scruton’s attack on Communism is his adoption of the term “Newspeak” as the key weapon of the New Left.  Newspeak is taken from George Orwell’s prescient novel 1984, completed in 1949.  Scruton suggests that ‘Newspeak” occurs whenever the primary purpose of language—which is to describe reality—is replaced by the primary purpose of asserting power over it. (p.9) Newspeak is a world of abstract forces…hence it is world without action. But it is not a world without movement.  On the contrary , everything is in constant motion, swept onwards by the forces of progress, or impeded by the forces of reaction. There is no equilibrium, no stasis and no rest in the world of Newspeak…the constantly reinforced triumph of ideology over reality.

There are some truly awesome and impossible to read examples of Newspeak in this book quoted from the works of the various philosophers studied.  A Further key component of Newspeak identified by Scruton is their imagined unity between the intellectuals and the working class. Newspeak would expose and delegitimize the ‘powers’ that maintained ‘the bourgeois’ order in being.(p.15) Scruton argues that Newspeak is at the heart of the New Left’s program. Truth is power and the hope of deposing it (p.12) reducing what others saw as authority, legality and legitimacy, to power, struggle and domination. (p16).  The extreme of this language is seen in the works of Lacan, Althusser and Deleuze in whose impenetrable sentences ..nothing could be understood except that they all had ‘capitalism’ as their target. (p.16)

An immediate response to reading Scruton is the recognition that Scruton has not only read in depth the works he evaluates (across three languages) but also accepts and acknowledges the quite remarkable gifts of many of the philosophers whose writings and views he criticises. He was no arm-chair critic but someone who read not only the works themselves but the sources and relevant documents supporting their arguments. Scruton’s analytical and argumentative skills are powerful indeed.

Scruton’s first targets in this book are the historians E P Thompson and especially Eric Hogsbawm, specifically volume 4 of Hogsbawm’s monumental History of the Modern World. it is in this secition that capitalism is blamed for all ills and the Soviet Communist experiment is whitewashed. Scruton argues that Hogsbawm ignores the horror of the  Stalinist purges during which 5.2 million non-Russian peoples were forcefully moved to harsh environments and up to 1.2 million were murdered between 1936 and 1938. Such purges were later to be repeated in Mao’s China and Pol Pot in  Cambodia

Scruton next turns his attention to the 1960’s Canadian/American economist and diplomat John Kenneth Galbraith and in particular his assault on the conspicuous wealth accumulation rampant even then in American society, described particularly in Galbraith’s influential book The Affluent Society published in 1958. Scruton describes Galbraith as the most established critic of the establishment ever to have enjoyed its acclaim (p.41)Scruton does not defend conspicuous consumption but argues that it is the political institutions of a country that determine outcomes rather than any particular economic model, a point that Galbraith eventually acknowledged after his time as American ambassador and eventually economic advisor to India.

Scruton’s second target in this chapter is celebrated American lawyer and well published professor of Jurisprudence Ronald Dworkin. This section was too much for my small mind but Scruton’s criticism of Dworkin based on Dworkin’s own writing on moral issues relating to protest, sex, marriage and abortion tended to be liberal in relation to progressives and skewed against conservative approaches.

The centre stage of this book however is Scruton’s analysis of European intellectuals  (chapters 4 – 8). Western society’s debt to Hegel was mediated in France by the Russian writer in exile, lecturer Alexandre Kojève. His pre-war Paris lectures on Hegel’s Phenomenology of the Spirit influenced many of the post-war French philosophical writers discussed in this book.  Hegel is everywhere seen in the idea of “the other”, a sort of alter ego from which we must, by conflict,  free ourselves so that we can become a truly free self-consciousness. This potentially dangerous process of “othering”  can reduce the other to the outer reaches of society and to a place where they do not need to be cared about but on the other hand spiritually hungry atheists delighted in the ideas of freedom and the self-created individual.

After the tragedy of two wars, European intellectuals were desperate to find a new meaning and purpose in humanity…a new way forward and while a few turned to religion  between the wars especially Maritain, Proust and Chesterton; even Camus was too caring for Sartre!  Scruton notes that left leaning intellectuals were not in favour of Catholicism as a creator of nationalism.  Many  others saw the future in an idealised Communism, Central Europe was the heart of the new left: in France… Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Foucault, Althusser, Lacan, Deleuze, Derrida, Badiou; in Germany.. Heidegger, Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse,  Lukács (Hungarian), Habermas; in Italy..Gramsci (with a sideways look at Said (Palestinian); in Slovenia…Žižek. 

Heidegger’s difficult Being and Time, not analysed by Scruton, establishes the priority of the radical freedom of the self-created individual and this idea is enthusiastically taken up by Sartre in his major manifesto Being and Nothingness. Scruton devotes a  major chapter to the  analysis of Sartre and Foucault and then moves along to the other philosophers listed above. This section of the book is a demanding, exhilarating ride. Once again Scruton does not minimise the learning and skills of these philosophers. If anyone is capable of enunciating clearly what these writers are saying it is Roger Scruton, but the reader quickly finds that the language becomes unintelligible and in several cases completely meaningless, particularly the “nonsense machine” of Althusser, Lacan and Deleuze.

It is not for want of trying that Scruton dismisses the vigorous outpourings of these European philosophers. Scruton quotes large paragraphs of their work across their whole oevre  and attempts a clear “translation” of their meaning.  At times however, interpretation defies any analysis especially when the writer descends to pseudo-mathematical semiotics as in the case of Lukáks, and even Žiźek, although he, at least, is mathematically trained. 

A key term in the New Left assault on Capitalism is “Reification”, a process by which people are captured by, or transfer their freedom to the objects that represent them especially their possessions and their art (which becomes an ornament instead of a critical instrument to challenge society).  But it is not just objects purchased by the capital west that are prone to reification, but also institutions, laws and relationships. It is at the stage when political revolutionaries feel the need to do away with law that ordinary folk should begin to fear. This is a fear so graphically depicted in the writing of Polish poet Czeslaw Milozs’ book The Captive Mind and most simply summarised in André Breton’s second surrealist manifesto of 1930…everything remains to be done, every means must be worth trying, in order to lay waste the ideas of family, country, religion.. Other central terms in this New Left vocabulary are ‘totalization’ (a mystical event taking the place of God and the evil magic of the bourgeois) and ‘dialectical reasoning’.

Some key ideas that emerged to me in Fools, Frauds and Firebrands are listed below:

p.83f: Sartre, on “othering”:  The authentic self seeks the total solution to the riddle of existence, and one is his own creation, acknowledging no authority, no legitimacy that is tainted by the unacceptable world of ‘them’.

p.85:  Sartre, ..the existentialist anti-hero need only ensure that his commitment is not to the fragmented imperfection of the actual, but to the purified ‘totality’ of an abstract idea. It suffices to commit yourself to what Kant called an ‘Idea of Reason,’ but which we might equally describe as Utopia: by doing this you gain a world without losing your freedom. …the existentialist earns the salvation that he needs—that of the ‘total’ viewpoint obtaining in the Kingdom of Ends.

p.87  On Sartre: Sartre claims to reject Marxism for its partial and mechanistic account of man’s condition. Nevertheless he expresses his ‘total’ commitment in terms of Marxist categories..the bourgeois and  proletarian division…the extraction of surplus value ‘from the alienated ‘proletariat’ proceeds by bourgeois ‘exploitation’ leading to an ever increasing class struggle under capitalism.

p.89  On Sartre; The commitment on which Sartre settles is in fact Marxism of a wholly unreconstructed kind. We find emerging from [Sartre’s] pages the same destructive fantasies, the same false hopes, the same pathological hatred of the imperfect and the normal, that have characterised all the followers of Marx from Engels to Mao..[and Pol Pot who was influenced by Sartre in Paris.]

p.110 On Foucault: On his analysis of the law: The revolution can only take place via the radical elimination of the judicial apparatus, and anything which could reintroduce the penal apparatus. He recommends the banishment of adjudication, and every form of court, and gestures towards a new form of ‘proletarian’ justice, which will not require the services of a judge….had he proceeded to mention the historical facts—Revolutionary Tribunals, in which judge, prosecutor, and witness were one and the same and the accused had no right of reply, the thousands of executions, the genocide in La Vendée, and all the other calamities that flowed from the ‘revolution against the judiciary’ —then his remarks might have been taken as a warning and not, as he intended them, as an endorsement.

pp119f On György Lukács who immersed himself in the writings of the anarcho-syndicalist Georges Sorel whose apology for violence made a deep impression (p118), Lukács asserted that ‘Communist ethics makes it the highest duty to accept the necessity to act wickedly,’ adding that ‘this is the greatest sacrifice the revolution asks from us’ . “Wickedness” after all, is a bourgeois conception, and everything bourgeois must be overthrown. Indeed the entire human psyche is so deformed by capitalism that ‘it is not possible to be human in a  bourgeois society.’ …With Lukács  we have not to do with the anti-bourgeois snobbery of a  Foucault …We have to do with hatred…which embraces all the ‘appearances’ of the ‘bourgeois’ world…

p144 On the Frankfurt School: (Adorno/Horkheimer) It is only fair to add that the Frankfurt critique of the consumer society contains an element of truth. It is a truth far older than the Marxist theories which Adorno and Horkheimer embellished it. Indeed it is the truth enshrined in the Hebrew Bible, reformulated time and again down the centuries: the truth that, in bowing down to idols, we betray our better nature….By turning to God we become what we truly are, creatures of a higher world, whose fulfilment is something more than the satisfaction of our wishes. Through idolatry, by contrast, we fall into a lower way of being —the way of self-enslavement, in which our appetites shape themselves as gods and take command of us.

pp146-7  On Habermas: Habermas turned his back on the Frankfurters…nevertheless the critique of instrumental reason survives in Habermas, in a fortified and bureaucratised form….The style is vague, irresolute and emotionless, in the manner of a sociology Ph.D…Only where the hidden agenda is momentarily exposed does Habermas declare himself…”a political praxis which is consciously directed towards overturning the existing institutional system.”  The  rest is prodigious waffle, and indeed barely intelligible, part of an endless stream of ‘on the one hand/on the other hand’ ruminations, inspired by whatever book or article has just come to Habermas’s attention, and littered with sociological jargon. A reader coming for the first time to Habermas, and confronted with acres of such writing, may well feel a certain astonishment at the thought that here, before him, lies the core of the German left establishment….Tedium is the vehicle of an abstract authority, and the reader waits in the corridors of Habermas’s prose like a petitioner to whom truth has been promised, albeit only abstractly, on a document that is perhaps out of date. 

p158f.  On Althusser. The revolution of the 1960s was therefore a revolution conducted in laboratory conditions, with hardly a step being taken outside the world of books…it became the business of inventing spurious questions, barren controversies and arcane pedantries, with which to divert all intellectual enquiry away from the fundamental question…the question of revolution itself. The urgency of this question, and the elaborate ways of begging it, are nowhere more apparent than in the writings of the man who was singled out by the revolutionaries of 1968 as their intellectual leader, Louis Althusser….there is only one legitimate goal of all intellectual endeavour, which is the goal of revolution…Althusser offers a new and fortified language, in which no question can be posed, and no answer offered, except in terms that are barely intelligible to those who have not renounced their capacity to think outside them. As Orwell perceived, the first target of every revolution is language. The need to create a Newspeak that puts power in the place previously occupied by truth and, having done this, to describe the result as the ‘politics of truth.’…Hence Althusser’s writings, which are exemplary in this respect—engage with nothing written by those outside the Marxist camp.

p174f. On “The Nonsense Machine” 1:  Based on semiotics and ‘signs’ in Literature: Lacan/Deleuze/Derrida based on work by Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure in his Cours de Linguistique générale, 1916 (posthumously). Scruton notes:..the Swiss linguist Ferndinand de Saussure introduced two ideas that were to be used, abused and jargonized throughout the 1960s and 70s: the idea of language as a system of ’differenses,’ and the idea that there is, or could be, a ‘general science of signs’. Saussure argued that the meaning of a sign attaches to it only in the context of other signs that might replace it in a sentence….Jacques Derrida went further still, arguing that therefore no sign means in isolation, and meaning waits upon the ‘other’ sign, the sign that completes it by opposing it, but which cannot be finally written down. Meaning is never present but always deferred, chased through the text from sign to sign, always vanishing as we seem to reach it, now the meaning lies before us, then this i our decision, which may have a political justification, but which is in no way dictated by the text…..that intoxicating (and toxic) piece of nonsense is now as firmly embedded in intellectual history as Newton’s mechanics…

p. 174 On Lacan:  “The Nonsense Machine” 2: …what mattered to the builders of the nonsense machine was not the answer [to the signs question] but the mystery stirred by the question. The frame of the nonsense machine was assembled by Jacques Lacan, the cranky psychiatrist whose writings, published in 1966, had an extraordinary impact on the student revolutionaries, with whose cause he publicly aligned himself…described by Raymond Tallis as ‘the Shrink from Hell”. [See Écrits, 1966]

pp.176-178. On Lacan  …the fame of an idea arises from its influence, not its truth.  So it was with Freud, Jung and Adler; so it has been with Klein, Binswanger, Lacan and many more. [cf. Jean Bricmont and Alan Sokal’s devastating criticism of Lacan’s misuse of set theory, typology etc in Impostures Intellectuals’ Abuse of Science,1998. Lacan’s musings on a big “Other” ruling the world and the “mirror image” a child experiences when first identifying herself in a mirror and the semiotic/set theory form in which it was set out is way beyond my ability to summarise but Scruton assembles enough information to damn Lacan as a criminal charlatan, to quote from the published study by Elizabeth Roudinesco.

pp197-208  On Gramsci.  Italian Marxist Gramsci came to notice with his direct assault on Fascism in the 1920s and quickly ended up in jail when Mussolini assumed power. Gramski kept writing until his death in 1937 and his revolutionary ideas were canonised by the new left of the 1960s particularly with his slogan that history is on no one’s side, arguing for a gradual change in political hegemony rather than a violent revolution. The revolution involves a gradual ‘seizing of the culture.”  A key failure of Gramsci’s writing in Scruton’s view is his failure to see the very real similarities in the methodology of both Fascism and Communism (p.201)

pp210-232 On the Culture Wars in England- This idea of the “long revolution” was and is still played out in England as culture wars based around a horror of the industrial revolution and the social and literary criticism of Burke, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Carlyle, Arnold, Ruskin, William Morris, The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Historian Cobbett, Bernard Shaw, the Fabians and the cultural and socialist writing of Raymond Williams (eg The Long Revolution, Penguin edition 1961). This is basically a revolution against privilege and power. 

pp233-238 Scruton challenges C20th post-modern heroes Richard Rorty and Edward Said. Rorty, briefly for his post-modern assumption that all the Enlightenment celebration of high culture, discovery, the universal value of other cultures, a common human nature and a vision of man as free and self-created was about to be swept away completely by the vagaries of post-modernism.

Scruton attacks Said in relation to his influential work Orientalism published in 1978. He regarded Said’s book as flawed by highly selective quotations, concerning a very narrow range of East-West encounters, relying solely on Western portrayals of the Occident and making to effort to make any comparative judgements whatsoever, when it came to assessing who had been unfair to whom.

Chapter 8: The Kraken Wakes: The cause of the New Left seemed finished. Williams, Thompson, Deleuze, Rorty and Said were dead, and Habermas was busy burying the leftist message in page upon page of bureaucratic dither. Meanwhile the communist systems of the Russian Empire had collapsed and China was on its way to becoming a centre of trans-national capitalism, combining in its mad orgy of consumption some of the worst features of every system of government in living history. 

Enter Alain Badiou and his disciple Slavoj ŽIźek who have both worked hard to persuade the world that Lacan was not the crazy charlatan described previously. Badiou’s methodology was again based on set theory but this time with a much stronger basis in mathematics than Lacan could have dreamt of. Badiou is a repeat of the old left, a disdain form human rights; a denial of law; a tolerance of violence and he is in the grip of a complete commitment to something unreal, which is dressed up as a ‘truth procedure’, an ‘event’, a ‘generic multitude’, ‘the unnameable’ – terms that do nothing to conceal the underlying nothingness.  Scruton concedes (p271) that the ‘communist hypothesis’ will never go away…For it is not a prediction, nor in any real sense a hypothesis. It is a statement of faith in the unknoChapwable, the unnameable, in the ‘wandering of nothing’….They exist in order to promote a single and absolute cause, the cause that admits of no criticism and no compromise, and which offers redemption to all who espouse it. And what is that cause? The answer is there on every page of these fatuous writings: Nothing. 

Chapter 9 is a fairly brief outline of Scruton’s defence of ‘What is Right’ on which he has written in some detail elsewhere and which seems rather tame after the hi-jinks of the New Left. The book has excellent separate indexes of both names and events. 

Although there is much in this book beyond my ken I could not put it down. It is trenchant, courageous writing, hugely unpopular with the high end literary caste but like the work of David Balinski, impossible to ignore. 5 stars. 

Mary McCarthy: The Stones of Florence and Venice  Observed,  p/b,  Camberwell, Penguin, 2006 (1959, Florence; 1956, Venice)

The Stones of Florence.

Mary McCarthy graduated cum laude from Vasar College and was elected to Phi Delta Kappa. She became a highly regarded American novelist, acerbic literary and art critic, travel writer and influential left-leaning political commentator, (although bitterly opposed to Stalinism). She was a close friend of Hannah Arendt becoming her literary executor until her own death in 1989. Four times married McCarthy was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and held nine honorary university degrees.

The Stones of Florence provides an opportunity for a full display of McCarthy’s lacerating wit and extraordinary depth of knowledge in Italian art history. The city of Florence is described in depth  from many aspects including modern Florence, ancient Roman Florence, Republican, Mediaeval, Medici, Renaissance and Mannerist Florence. With no visual representations in my Penguin edition, McCarthy still manages to portray in depth “written pictures” of the history, politics,  art, sculpture, scientific inventions, streets, lanes, food, markets, churches and people of Florence. I flattered myself I knew the religious art of Florence quite well after several visits but McCarthy’s personal research and depth of knowledge is impressive indeed.

The reader comes away feeling they have a personal knowledge of Giotto, Botticelli, Ucelllo, Michelangelo, Leonardo, Vasari, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Giambologna, Cellini, Piero della Francesco, Massaccio, Machiavelli, Dante, Savaronola, Luca della Robia, Verrochio, Fra Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi, Gozzoli, Bernardo Daddi, Andrea del Sarto,Pontormo, Il Rosso, Bronzino, and many others.

The bitter and seemingly never ending feuding between Ghibelline and Guleph is never far away in any account of Florence but what finally emerges is “Florence” itself. Florence, whose Tuscan tongue gave a language to an eventually united Italy, proud but simple, stolid, Florence, content with a little, not showy, living the seasons with good food and drink and squarely comfortable in its own skin, able to challenge both pope and emperor where necessary and finding a way to defeat oppressor,  siege, flood, plague, tourists galore. 

Even if, after the Renaissance, Florence became a “backwater” after their artistic collapse in the mid-sixteenth century according to McCarthy,  yet the city did not die or petrify like Mantua, Ravenna,  Rimini, Siena, or turn into a dream like Venice. (p.161). Rationalist Florence and Tuscany lived on and prospered to become the dream and place of every sensitive Englishman and eventually the world. McCarthy’s Florence is idiosyncratic, detailed, harsh and impossible to put down.  (5 stars)

Venice Observed. 

Everyone writes about Venice, as McCarthy herself observes…including Herbert Spenser, Montaigne, Henry James, D H Lawrence (negatively), Gibbon, Cassanova, Rousseau, Lady Mary Worltley Montague, Charles de Brosses, Goldoni, Byron, Browning, Shelley, Ruskin, Turner, artist Richard Bonington,Auguste-Maurice  Barrès, and Frederick Rolfe (‘Baron’) Corvo. In spite of this excitement Venice itself has produced few writers with the exception of Goldoni.  Nevertheless I doubt few writers  have managed the sustained analysis McCarthy brings to her series of snapshots of Venice, where she must have stayed frequently.  

True in 1956 when she was writing and ever more so today, there is no use pretending the tourist Venice is not the real Venice (p177). I shudder to think what McCarthy would have written about the gigantic cruise ships which, until Covid19,  daily shouldered their way into the Grand Canal, threatening flood and towering over the Doge’s Palace. Many thousands of tourists have half a day to “do” Venice. Writing, in fact, seems to be quite low on the list of Venetian interests and the story of the donation of all Petrarch’s library to Venice and their subsequent losing of it, never yet to be found, is outrageous! (p.220)

McCarthy writes of the earliest history of Venice, its first settlers fleeing from Atilla the Hun and settling literally in the mud of the flood prone lagoons; She notes the influence of powerful  Byzantium nearby; Venice’s limited  involvement in the Crusades  and the many sea battles which eventually gave Venice command of the seas for a time. McCarthy notes the development of the surrounding islands, Burano with its lace,  Murano with its glass  and Torcello with its C6th Santa Maria Assunta Basiiica Cathedral and Chioggia, the “Little Venice”.  She notes once again the dependance on tourism for these islands and suggests that Venice is ringed by a series of dead cities. (p.241)

McCarthy notes but does not herself adulate Venice’s golden age of the Renaissance although many others have waxed lyrical about this period of Venice’s greatness.  McCarthy describes it aa an age of adulation and ceremony, of Lutheranism and of Debauchery in that order (P.226). That there was even a possibility of Lutheranism in Venice seems unlikely but a combination of regular tensions with papal authority, enthusiastic efforts by British Diplomat Henry Wotton resident in Venice, and the remarkable monk,  philosopher, statesman and Protestant sympathiser Paolo Sarpi certainly made progress in that dierction. Sarpi had an underground direct passage to the Doge and for a while the impossible seemed to be possible with the Jesuits expelled for a time.  Sarpi survived a murderous assault by papal thugs but the cause was eventually lost in spite of Wotton’s valiant efforts.

Venice has been responsible for an amazing array of inventions including income tax, statistical science, the floating of government stock, state censorship of books, the gambling casino, anonymous denunciations and the Ghetto and held the secrets of their glass industry very tightly indeed.  They broached the idea of the Suez Canal with neighbours and even contemplated plague warfare!  McCarthy deals with several of these developments and many others. 

Also on the religious side Venice was unusual in Italy for its acceptance of a Jewish community but there again there was an pragmatic gain. The Jews were herded into a ghetto and taxed severely so that when Napoleon finally threw open the  ghetto gates there were virtually no survivors, most had died in poverty or fled to Holland. Napoleon’s theft of horses and lions from St Mark’s were eventually restored if a little damaged but the artwork looted for the Louvre I doubt ever came back.

As with McCarthy’s account of Florence, her serious excitement and commitment is to the art of Venice and once again the locations and details of genius are described with such energy that photographic imagery is not essential. McCarthy finds them all .. the two Bellinis, Palladio (the world’s loveliest city produced only one architect), Veronese, Tintoretto, Cima, Giorgioni, Carpaccio, the Bastiani, Basaiti, Paris Bordani, Sansovina Florentino, Vvarini, Crivelli atnd later Canaletto, Guardi, Lotto and Vechio. Venetian painting from beginning to end is a riot of dress goods and in a later phrase, a parade of pets. In relation to architecture McCarthy notes that  In relation to the glorious mystique of Venice all of the beautiful residential  architecture is designed to be seen from the canals and if one was serious enough to find a way to the back door of such buildings a shock might be in store.

For folk who love Italy and everything about Italy, this story of Venice is a must. (5 stars) To have both The Stones of Florence and Venice Observed in one accessible volume is a treat indeed. 



John Le Carré: Agent Running in the Field,p/b, London, Viking/Penguin, 2019 

David John Moore Cornwell, more commonly known as John Le Carré is 90 years old and has written at lease 25 novels pretty much all in the espionage/intelligence genre. A former UK spy operative Le Carré clearly writes with inside knowledge about the complexities and dangers  of a double and triple life  where the consequences can be very high indeed for individuals and for nations. 

Spy thrillers are not my usual genre so It is hard for me to rate this recent novel against others but it is fascinating indeed to read a novel set in the current Brexit/Trump era of West/East politics. The characterisations are taut, the action tensing and the reader wants to believe in the key figures.  This novel is easy entertainment for a day’s reading and maintains attention even if some of the complexities of the plot at times go beyond  a slow mind like mine.  I would give this   novel 3 stars but I am guessing it would rank more highly for espionage lovers.

Marcel Proust: In Search of Lost Time, Volume 1: The Way by Swann’s: A New Translation; Translation, Introduction and Notes by Lydia Davis. p/b, Camberwell, Penguin,  2002

Formerly titled Remembrance of Things Past, Marcel Proust has written a monumental oeuvre  in seven volumes. In this new Penguin edition, it is six volumes with volumes 5 and 6 printed in one volume). Former English translations by Kilmarten and Enright have been replaced in this Penguin edition by seven different translators and I found Lydia Davis’s translation of Volume 1 to be fluent, easy to read and the notes particularly helpful.

Marcel Proust

It has taken me to the ripe age of 71 to tackle Proust and in some ways I am glad because comprehension of his vast range of thinking across literature, art, botany, Greek mythology, music and the wonder of Paris at the turn of the century is exceptional and takes a bit of keeping up with.   In this volume the story line on the surface is quite simple and in three parts, the last one quite short. Part of the complexity of Proust is that some of his individuals, places and events are real and some are inventions eg. Vinteuil, brilliant fictional composer.  The notes help here but not always.

Part 1, Combray,  Is told in the first person and centres upon Proust’s childhood set in the imagined French village of Combray and focusses on the intensity of his closeness to his mother Madeleine, whilst at the same time introducing us briefly to the somewhat elusive and fictional Charles Swann and his daughter Gilberte. The Village of Combray is based in part on his own childhood town of Illiers.  

Part 2 is an account of the extraordinary relationship between Swann and a beautiful and street savvy Parisian courtesan Odette de Crécy. It would take an exceptional psychiatrist indeed to unravel the complexity of Swann’s feelings towards Odette!

Part 3, entitled in English “Place Times: the Name” is written again in the first person and Is a brief reflection on Paris and an imagined Florence and Venice but also tells of Proust’s first “love” involving a chance second meeting with Gilberte Swann as well as explaining to us that Charles Swann eventually marries Odette de Crécy to the reader’s amazement! 

Of course, with Proust, the story in many ways is secondary to the language. Even in translation, Proust immerses his reader immediately in an intensity of analysis of beauty ….beauty of feeling, of flowers, of music, of many amazing works of art, of architecture,  of weather, of feeling, of family relationships, of growing up, or yearning for meaning,  of sexuality, of a crumbling aristocratic French society. In undoubtedly the longest sentences I have ever read Proust weaves a spell over the reader with an intensity I am not sure I have encountered before, except perhaps in D H Lawrence or indeed Tolstoy.   I think that reading Proust is a decision! It is not literature that you can skip through to get the story line or if you do you will miss all that is worthwhile and valuable in the writing. 

Some brief ideas follow that jumped right out at me and give me pause even if I didn’t always agree:

p. 195:  …lies told out of vanity

p.201: amusing it must be to pore over books..

p. 201:  …the fear of being unhappy.

p.216:   …the clichés of art that need to be rejected.

p. 225:   …the ideal is inaccessible and happiness mediocre.

p. 249:   …to try to have but a single soul for the two of them…

p. 282: …the ‘Self’ above all…

p.444 fn 106. Proust writes: You’re never as unhappy as you think, which is based on a maxim of François, Due de La Rochefoucauld (1613-80), One is never as happy or unhappy as one imagines. 

p. 361. In spite of all that has occurred at this late stage of the Swann/Odette saga, and all that has been been revealed to the reader, Swann still did not believe that Odette was a prostitute. 

p.394:   ..The countries we long for occupy a far larger place in our actual life at any given moment than the country in which we happen to be.

Will I ever finish reading In Search of Lost Time? That remains an open question. I am glad I have read The Way by Swann’s and I want to read more of Proust. I will take this one volume at a time!

5 stars. 

Karpeles, Eric: Paintings in Proust; A Visual Companion to “In Search of Lost Time”,  h/b, London, Thames & Hudson, 2008

Marcel Proust, writing to French novelist and critic Jean Cocteau, said My book is a painting. I think this is an accurate way of describing Proust’s “thick” writing. You cannot just read Proust; even in translation, you have to experience it, you have to be in it. In another sense it is difficult to understand fully many of Proust’s offhand comparisons about events, places or people because they are comparisons with paintings. Art is never far away from his thought. 

This beautifully produced book saves the reader an inordinate amount of time hunting around to find an image of the paintings Proust refers to. After a brief introduction to Proust’s work the book simply consists of brief extracts in their literary order from In Search of Lost Time together with beautifully reproduced full colour paintings of the painting in question or the author’s best guess of the painting Proust refers to. There are 206 illustrations and complete indexes of artists, locations and notes on the painters. Proust’s writing at its height is a gift to the mind and spirit and this book is an inspirational accompaniment to reading Proust. Eric Karpeles and the publishers have provided a rich gift indeed for Proust lovers. Even if you haven’t read a word of Proust this is an art collection you will want to reflect on again and again.  5 stars and rising.

Eric Karpeles

Larry Crabb: Understanding People: Why We Long for Relationship, p/b, Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 2013 (1987).

Dr Lawrence (“Larry”) Crabb holds doctoral qualifications in Psychology from the University of Illinois and has been Scholar in Residence at Colorado Christian University. He has written widely in the areas of Biblical counselling, Marriage, the Church and approaches to pyschology. Understanding People is probably his most well known book and has often been republished.

Understanding People is a demanding read. Its conversational style, especially in the early chapters might strike the reader initially as glib and simplistic and further judicious editing would have given these introductory chapters greater clarity.  But the reader who perseveres will see that Crabb will not accept common and  simplistic Christian responses and requires his readers to travel slowly and thoughtfully through the many difficult moral questions of the modern world including our freedom to choose,  questions of maturity, personhood, rationality, hostility, the possibility and pains of change, our emotional nature and the many tricks especially Christian folk use to cover up their general unwillingness to “go deep” with the Christian friends and pastors they associate with. 

Crabb is a critic of the limiting aspects of much psychological counselling. His target is not in reference to treatment to deal with problems resulting from physical/natural causes such as major depression and other affective disorders, behavioural or emotional problems stemming from chemical imbalance, physical lesions or degenerative disease, drug induced psychosis and learning difficulties caused by perceptual malfunction and early learning deficits. Rather his attention focusses on what he regards as moral issues. 

Crabb provides a critique of various psychological approaches including Christian approaches such as Christian moral Model counselling and nouthetic counselling but also psycho-analysis, Rogerian counselling, Gestalt therapy, primal therapy and other similar dynamic and relational models. Whilst Crabb is supportive of many of the principles at work in both these secular and strict Christian approaches (such as Jay Adams’ nouthetic counselling), Crabb argues that there is a huge gap in training Christian counsellors. Simplistic proclamations that “Christ is the Answer” won’t do the job for pastors (p.236) and pastors who think that simply stating Biblical positions and then retreating to church discipline procedures when the teaching fails, is not the way forward.   Crabb believes that the scientific sidelining of a Biblical understanding of life principles starting with Freud in the early C20th and exploding exponentially since, has been to the detriment of human flourishing and that Christians in particular have been let down by their pastors who should be thoroughly  trained in counselling as well as the usual focus on Biblical teaching. The book is aimed primarily at Christian leaders, pastors and counsellors rather than non-Christians. 

p.152   Sometimes we select or adopt a painful image of ourselves (such as we are clumsy, or forgetful or shy)  to avoid a deeper psychological or spiritual problem or challenge.

Whilst Crabb would agree that the Bible does not directly provide solutions to problems such as anorexia or obsessive compulsive disorder, he argues that there are profound and overlooked central ideas and principles in the Bible that Christian counsellors can make use of in their pastoral work. He believes that Christian communities have been let down by the C20th preoccupation of ministers and ordained clergy with relatively “safe” Biblical theological questions in both preaching and discussion and that clergy are by and large inadequately trained in Biblical approaches to personal psychological and moral issues including marriage and parenting difficulties, pornography and physical drives including lust. He believes that many clergy are not ready to deal with such difficult and personal issues and are either content to communicate simplistic Biblical quotations and where that fails encouraging folk to seek secular psychologists. 

Some thought starters that I found helpful include:

p. 31.  A discussion of whether the Bible was designed to answer C21st ethical questions.

p. 43   Biblical inerrancy does not  mean that  our personal interpretation of a text is innerrant.

p. 55.  The general disinclination of pastors to get into the ugly details of peoples’ lives when they ask for help with the result that churches degenerate to audiences rather than communities …nothing matters but the pulpit.

p. 63.  The dangers of simplistic textual responses to complex psychological issues such as transvestism or fear of intimacy.

p.73    We are good at studying the Word of God but missing out on the Message of God.

p.74  Pastors should be trained to deal with the real issues in people’s lives not just be clever Biblical exegetes.  He cites one newly licensed ordinand complaining that “no-one asks the questions I can answer!”

p96. Our counselling model will depend upon our beliefs about human nature. Therefore we need to study human nature in depth to fulfil our counselling responsibilities.

p.110  There is a common resistance to self examination amongst Christians, for fear of what we will find. 

p132 While the Bible answers the central spiritual longings of the Christian we all have less deep but very real longings that God does not directly satisfy. How do we deal with these longings?

p143.  We must recognise that sin is much deeper than conscious and voluntary transgression of known laws.  Sin requires our transformation (Romans 12:1-2)

p155.  Our task is to renew our minds. We cannot always change our circumstances.

p.160. A regular danger for pastors of large churches is that they produce either robots or rebels and not much in between.

p.161  We need to major on spirituality, prayer and the mystical side of the Spirit as much as on Biblical head knowledge,

p.176 Personality theories that ignore the element of human choice are unbiblical but we all need to understand the motivations for our behaviour choices.

pp. 180-187 People are responsible because they are free but longstanding behaviour can become compulsive…We need to recognise the goal of our pet behaviours Most people don’t see themselves as choosing  beings and in the Christian life the process of choice is slow and never ending. 

p192  Too often we get the impression that spiritual Christians always feel good…joy now is not to replace suffering, it is to support us through it. Sometimes we will be sad. 

p. 208  Spiritual maturity should not be measured by emotional evenness. 

p232  Christian maturity is realised dependency, admitted poverty, brokenness ..we need to acknowledge our helplessness and vulnerability. 

Understanding People  is an excellent introduction to Christian counselling and will repay reading many times over.  4 stars. 

An Easter Exercise for isolated corona virus individuals

An Easter Exercise for isolated thinkers during the Corona Virus from the book:

John Dickson: If I Were God, I’d Make myself Clearer: Searching for Clarity in a World Full of Claims, p/b, Kingsford, Matthias Media, 2002

John Dickson is a prolific writer of Ancient History, Theology and Apologetics. This little book seeks to answer the title’s criticism of God’s unclear revelation, a discussion that comes up often in explorations of the many world religions. The book is typically Dickson: brief, to the point, clear and full of accessible ideas and suggestions for moving forward. The following quotes/notes summarise his argument. (I hope accurately):

  1. When it comes to faith there appears to be no clarity, just a cacophony of competing claims.(p9)
  2. A pluralist approach accepts all perspectives as valid.(p.9)
  3. A New Age approach is popular because it does not make onerous demands (p.10)
  4. Many people, religious or not, like to think about religion; they sense that there is more to life than the material …a sense which at times requires gratitude for example, or a deeper meaning to ours and the world’s very existence. (p12)
  5. Questions of ‘spirituality’ do not go away. They seem to have consistently occupied human minds throughout history and even today in Western atheistic societies. (p12)
  6. ‘Religion’ of course does not just cover the big five (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism) but the I-Ching, Confucius, Zoroastrianism, Wicca, Aboriginal spirituality, Satanism and quasi-spiritual activities like the opening of the Olympic Games. (p13)
  7. In spite of limited formal worship in the C21st significant numbers of folk in the West believe in “The Almighty” eg in Britain in 2000, 62% with 69% believing in the existence of a human ‘soul’. (p14)
  8. Discussion about atheism vs faith is very prominent in the C21st with much energy  being expended in books and discussions both ways. eg Philip Adams, Richard Dawkins et al (p14)

9.   The daughter of renowned C20th atheist Bertrand Russell wrote about her father in strikingly        spiritual terms: “I believe myself that his whole life was a search for God, or, for those who prefer less personal terms, for absolute certainty. (p.15).

10.    Bertrand Russell himself wrote to his daughter after visiting a Byzantine Church in Greece: I realised then that the Christian outlook had a firmer hold upon me than I had imagined …I r ealised with some astonishment that I myself am powerfully affected by this sense in my feelings though not in my beliefs. (p15)

11.  In C1st Athens, the Apostle Paul found an inscription on an altar “to an unknown God”. (p16)

12   Paul goes on to argue in Athens that God has in fact arranged the times and places of human societies with the express intention that they should search for their Source of Life and perhaps “feel their way toward him and find him”. (p.17)  

13.  Every single society about which anthropologists and historians know anything significant has made ‘spirituality’ a key component of their cultural life. Australian Aborigines, New Zealand Maories , native Americans, pre-Anglo Celts, nomadic Mongols, and modern Chardonay-yuppies… (p.18)

14:   ..the question of God is one of the few universally shared premises of humanity throughout time. (p.18)

15. But why do we in the Western world talk about these things so rarely. We think about them but we don’t talk about them. (p.18)

16.  In the West, Three out of four of us believe in the existence of God and the reality of the afterlife according to the most recent research, but you would never know it just listening to the media or work conversations. (p. 20)

17. I don’t know anyone who’s not interested in the idea of religion, whether they’re opposed to it or for it. (p.20)

18. In Australia, robbed of a broader meaning to our lives, we appear to have entered an era of mass obsession, usually with ourselves: our appearance, our health and fitness, our work, our sex lives , our children’s development, our personal development. (Source: Apocalypse No! Australia’s Commission for the Future) (p.21)

19. It’s as if we hope that the accumulation of numerous smaller ‘meanings’ will make up for the lack of a grand meaning…(p.22)

20. ‘Covetousness’ (the pursuit of material things) and ‘idolatry’ (the reverencing of material things)  are not so different after all, especially when they are a substitute for honouring the Creator of all things himself. (p.23)

21. We tend to agree there’s more to life than material possessions but settling for them all the same; admitting God’s existence in the world, but refusing his influence on our lives. (p.23)

22. The Apostle Paul brought his address to the Athenians to a close with this quote: The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all peop(le everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness. (p. 24)

23. Despite the sixth sense many of us have that there is probably a larger spiritual reality to be reckoned with, our society appears to prefer experiencing the smaller things of life with the other five senses. (p. 24)

24. How many times do we hear the message: “Life is about the job, the car, the house, the clothes, the investments, the retirement package, and so on.” (p. 25)

25. This question of pluralism is the question I want to confront in the rest of this book. (p26)

26. Some shonky Christian preachers preach a “Christian” “Gospel” of prosperity. That is  rubbish. (p.27)

27. Many people look for a spirituality without demands. (p.28)

28. Others think that religion is simply a matter of style or preference, a projection of our imagination and not a fact of the real world. (p.28)

29. Others suggest that the spiritual traditions of the world in the end point to one unified r reality. (p.29)

30. Australia’s many different cultures and faiths especially in large cities is very culturally enriching. (p. 30)

31. The benefit of a pluralist view is that it promotes tolerance rather than warfare. (p.30)

32. But pluralism’s fatal flaw is that while the various faiths agree in superficial things like they all say prayers, at the more basic level they tend to disagree with each other. (p.31)

33. Hinduism is polytheistic but Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh faith, insisting instead that there was just one deity, while Buddhism as taught by Siddhartha Gautama, negated theism altogether. (p.31)

34. The people of the Book (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) share many things in common but central to the Christian faith is the conviction that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, that he died on a cross and rose from the dead. This is non-negotiable for Christians but rejected by both Judaism and Islam. (p32)

35. Australian journalists have written articles purporting to show that Jesus really is shared by both faiths (Islam and Christianity) ..but a Jesus who was not the Son of God and who did not die on a cross is quite simply not the Jesus of Christian devotion. (p.34)

36. The faith traditions of the world are in no sense one. Perhaps one or other is true, perhaps none is true, but it is simply not possible that all, or even a few, are true. (p.34)

37. it is sometimes argued that to believe that a particular religion is true (and therefore that others are untrue) is arrogant since, in doing so you are consigning error to a huge portion of the rest of the world…the argument is valid to a point—lets face it, some Christians are arrogant, but all opinions, by their very nature, consign others to error.  Ironically, though, the views most open to the charge of arrogance are not the ancient monolithic ones such as Islam or Christianity, but the more recent ones like atheism and pluralism. (p.35)

38. Let’s start with atheism, the belief that there is no God or spirituality in the universe. This conviction is held by a tiny minority of the world’s population: according to the latest figures, just 2.5% [Source: Encyclopedia Brittanica,]

39.  Pluralism…is likewise arrogant since it claims to know something about all the faiths that none of the individual faiths is able to achieve…that there is an overarching faith which they all share. (p.36)

40. I do not personally believe that strongly held views—even those that negate the views of others —are in themselves presumptuous or bigoted. They can certainly lead to arrogance, but they do not in themselves constitute an arrogant claim. (p.36)

41. There is a legitimate fear that religious conviction will lead to religious intolerance and, as a consequence, to discrimination and violence. History is full of examples…(p.37)

42. But is an acceptance of all religious truth-claims the best way to respond to such dangers?…a better way forward, I believe, is to promote true ‘tolerance’, that is, not just to accept the validity of another person’s point of view but the more admirable ability to treat with respect a person with whom I deeply disagree. (p.38) 

43. By contrast, our common insistence upon mere ‘agreement’ is intellectually suspect and culturally insensitive. (p.39)

44. In short, I am suggesting that our society’s keenness to affirm all religious viewpoints stems, in part, from an aversion to think too hard about any of them. (p.41)

45. ..the result of all this is rather sad. Whether by an aversion to religious intolerance or a tendency to take the easy option, this acceptance of all faiths has the potential to leave us with no faith at all. God, whoever he or she is, remains for us a mystery. (p42)

46. Would not the Almighty—if indeed he exists—have made things decidedly clearer? The Apostle Paul….answered with a resounding yes, which moves the discussion to the idea of verifiability. (p42)

47. In all religious claims, how can the truth or falsehood of one’s claim be tested? (p.44)

48. If the Creator of the universe were the least bit interested in our devotion, he or she would surely do something ‘concrete’ to grab our attention, something we could all assess for ourselves and from which we could draw our own conclusions. Surely, he would have made himself clearer! (p49)

49. Mormonism provides a an example of a verifiable claim which, in my opinion, can be found (with a high degree of confidence) to be unwarranted. (p.50)

50. The claims of Judaism regarding the exodus from Egypt, while they cannot be proven, has enough evidence of verifiable claims that, when scrutinised…arouse not suspicion but a degree of confidence. (p.53)

51. Whereas Buddhism and Sikhism originated as offshoots and rejections from Hinduism, and Islam was a counter- movement to Christianity and Baha’i to Shiite Islam, Christianity began with a collection of devout Jews. (p.54)

52. In no sense was the early movement surrounding Jesus a rejection of Judaism. It was proclaimed thorughout the Mediterranean as the very fulfilment of the Jewish Scriptures. (p54)

53. The later Jewish leadership eventually rejected Jesus as Messiah, demanding that the followers of Jesus be excommunicated from the synagogues and regarded as blasphemers (this was shortly before A.D. 100) (p54)

54. This rejection centred on Jesus failing to fulfil the hope of a military Messianic leader who would free the Jewish nation from its Roman overlords. (p.55)

55. The Christian claim that Jesus is God begins with Philip’s question Lord, Show us the Father and Jesus’ reply: Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know me Philip?  Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. (p.57)

56. The news of Christ—his life, death and resurrection —is not mythical narrative revealed in the head of a prophet and transcribed in books called Gospels. It was a phenomenon of time and space; it was an event of history. At its heart, Christianity concerns the public, verifiable life story of the man Jesus, the man who claimed personally to reveal God and of whom God has ‘given assurance’ to use Paul’s words , by raising him from the dead. (p.59)

57. Christianity is potentially vulnerable to critical enquiry precisely because its main claims are verifiable. (p.61)

58. The fact that Christianity is so potentially vulnerable to scholarship and yet is still believed by so many professional scholars is not without significance. The openness of Christianity to rigorous scrutiny is in my opinion, one of the most exciting things about it. I want a faith that can be tested. (p.62)

59. …my aim here is not to ‘prove’ the Christian claim at all. …Rather it is intended to demonstrate that of all the great religious claims in the world the Christian one is the most easily and widely testable. (p.63)

60. First the language of these documents is not some strange tongue which on one understands any more. It is called Koine Greek and it is a very simple and widely understood language. (p. 64)

61. Secondly, the age of the documentary evidence is impressive..the earliest manuscript copies of the Gospels are dated around 200 A.D. , only 120 years or so after they were written.  (p.64)

62. Thirdly the volume of copies we possess is overwhelming…for the Gospels alone historians have over 2000 manuscript copies with which to work. (p.65)

63. Fourthly the stability of the copying process is very clear. Comparing copies of the Gospels produced in 600 A.D. with those copied in 200 A.D. we are able to confirm the high accuracy of the copying process. (p.65)

64. The broad outline of Jesus’ life is confirmed by several passing references to him in non- Christian writings …three from Roman authors (Tacitus, Suetonius and Pliny) and four from Jewish pens (twice each in Josephus and the Talmud). (p.65)

65. ..equally impressive is the fact that the original time of writing was very close to the events themselves. The first Gospel was probably written in the mid-60’s A.D., just 30 or so years after Jesus’ death. (p.66)

66. Most New Testament scholars discern behind the Gospels at least five different sources, each composed prior to the Gospels themselves…the picture which emerges is strikingly similar across the sources. (p.67)

67. The incidental historical accuracy of the Gospels is also important. Much of what the Gospels say in passing about eg architecture or politics can be quite often confirmed by modern archaeological and literary analysis eg the recent discovery of the Pontius Pilate inscription.

68. The claim of the resurrection itself must be admitted provisionally as evidence. (p.69)

69.  The veracity of the empty tomb is generally conceded. The body of Jesus was never produced to counter the claim.  (p.69)

70. The first witnesses to the resurrection were women. Highly unlikely to be made up given t that in this period a woman’s testimony was regarded as spurious and carried little legal weight. (p.70)

71. The few small divergences between the four gospels tell you the witnesses have not simply copied each other’s stories. (p.70)

72. ..the most compelling line of verification for the resurrection of Jesus is the transformation of Jesus’ followers…it is one thing to die for an ideology you simply believe to be true…but it is another thing tod die for a claim know to be a lie. (p.70)

73. If the historical evidence points decisively in the direction of Jesus’ resurrection, our belief in a the existence of a powerful Creator gets us philosophically ‘over the line’ or ‘into the back of the net’ as it were! (p.72)

74. The intention here is not to ‘prove’ the Christian faith…but to set our briefly a number of significant lines of verification open to anyone who wants to explore the truthfulness of Christianity.  (p.72)

BOOKS READ MARCH 2020 (only 2 books this month as I have been cataloguing my library; but also a wonderful poem!)

Ann Patchett: The Dutch House, p/b, London, Bloomsbury, 2019

American bookseller, journalist and influential author Ann Patchett’s eleventh novel has a House as its central character! The Dutch House is an ecclectic,  over-engineered and richly furnished mansion in a quiet and leafy residential area of downtown Pennsylvania. The story is told through the eyes of Danny Conroy and his much loved sister Maeve and charts their story from childhood onwards through many twists and turns but the connecting link throughout is the Dutch House which exerts its own spell over them.  The novel has an easy flow which draws the reader onwards through all the normal tensions of childhood, growing up, unexpected changes, education, work and relationships, curiously oblivious to any political or major external events which might have made inroads into the story. If the centre of the novel is not the house it could be the inner psychological development and maturing of the mind of Danny Conroy. The novel is engaging to a degree, without in my view, ever reaching great heights.

Ann Patchett, author of the The Dutch House

The Bright Field

I have seen the sun break through

to illuminate a small field

for a while, and gone my way

and forgotten it.  But that was the pearl

of great price, the one field that had 

the treasure in it.  I realise now

that I must give all that I have

to possess it. Life is not hurrying

on to a receding future, nor hankering after

an imagined past. It is the turning

aside like Moses to the miracle

of the lit bush, to a brightness

that seemed as transitory as your youth

once, but is the eternity that awaits you.

R. S. Thomas

C S Lewis: The Weight of Glory: A Collection of Lewis’s Most Moving Addresses,p/b, London, William Collins, 2013 (1949)

 p.30f:   A very famous passage from Lewis about heaven (glory) from the first essay: The Weight of Glory.

…a desire [for our own far off perfect country and place; something I used to dream about when I was a child]  for something that has never actually appeared in our experience…out commonest expedient is to call it beauty and behave as if that settled the matter. Wordsworth’s expedient was to identify it with certain moments in his own past.  But all this is a cheat. If Wordsworth had gone back to those moments in the past, he would not have found the thing itself, but only the reminder of it;  what he remembered would would turn out to be itself remembering. The books or the music in which we thought the beauty was located will betray us if we trust to them; it was not in them, it only came through them, and what came through them was longing. These things —the beauty, the memory of our own past— are good images of what we really desire; but if they are mistaken for the thing itself, they turn into dumb idols, breaking the hearts of their worshippers. For they are not the thing itself ; they are only the scent of a flower  we have not found, the echo of a tune we have not heard, news from a country we have never visited. Do you think I am trying to weave a spell? Perhaps I am: but remember your fairy tales. Spells are used fo break enchantments as well as for inducing them. And you and I have need of the strongest spell that can be found to wake us from the evil enchantments as well as for inducing them.

I have always found this passage deeply moving.  There is exceptional beauty on planet music, in drama, in writing, in nature, in persons, in architecture, in painting, in tapestry, in poetry, in nobility, in courage, in children, in love, and much else besides. Nevertheless such beauty is fragile, fleeting and leaves us at times desperate to reclaim it. Lewis helps us here to understand both heaven and the love of God.

Some Thought starters from the essay The Weight of Glory:

1. p.32;  … no social or biological development on this planet will delay the senility of the sun or reverse the second law of thermodynamics.  Have we come to grips with the inevitability of our own death? (Is corona virus also helping us to do this?)

2.  p33: Scripture is  symbolical when it speaks of the hereafter. The difference is that the scriptural imagery has authority. Do we accept the authority of Scripture?

3.  p34:  The Five promises of Scripture:  (i) That we shall be with Christ

(ii) That we shall be like him.

(iii) That we shall all have “glory”.

(iv) That we shall, in some sense, be fed or feasted or entertained

(v)  That we shall have some sort of official position in the universe.

What do we think of Lewis’s understanding of the Biblical view of “how heaven works”? How does this relate to the more current understanding of Heaven as the renewed kingdom of God on earth. 

4. p.36:   Traditional Biblical imagery of salvation such as palms, crowns, white robes, thrones and splendour, does not impress Lewis and most “moderns”; he places more store in God’s people endeavouring to be “good and faithful servants”, a “creature before its creator”. What do we think about this and the danger of the “deadly poison of self-admiration”? (p.37)

5.  p.38   Lewis plays down the importance of “how we think of God” …”how God thinks of us in not only more important, but infinitely more important. Indeed, how we think of Him is of no importance except insofar as it isrelated to how he thinks of us.”  What do we think of how we should think??

6.  p.41  …in this universe we are treated as strangers, but we have a longing to be acknowledged.  Is this how you feel?

7. p.41  St Paul promises to those who love God not, as we should expect, that they will know Him, but that they will be known by Him (1 Cor. 8:3) It is a strange promise …but he follows up with the dreadful warning of Jesus parable of the sheep and the goats: Depart from me, I never knew you! Can we cope with the notion of being erased from the knowledge of him who knows all”?

There are eight other essays in this 2013 William Collins edition, at least one of which is not printed elsewhere. The essays vary from complex philosophical and logical arguments to quite small sermons including his very last sermon preached in Cambridge. Here is simply note some ideas that jumped out at me in this challenging collection of essays.

From “Learning in Wartime”  (1939)

p.51  If you reject aesthetic satisfactions, you will fall into sensual satisfactions.

p.51  If you attempt to suspend your aesthetic and cultural life you will only succeed in substituting a worse cultural life. If you don’t read good books you will read bad ones.

p.51 The war will fail to absorb our whole attention because it is a finite object and therefore intrinsically unfitted to support the whole attention of a human soul. 

p52  A man may have to die for his country but no man must, in any exclusive sense live for his country. Render to Caesar the things that are Caesars etc…God’s claims are inexorable and infinite.

p.54  Whatever you do, do all for the glory of God: anything not offered to God is sinful.

p.55  Cultural activities are not in their own right spiritual and meritorious…poets and scholars are no more pleasing to God than scavengers and bootblacks.

p. 56 Our appetite for beauty and truth exists in the human mind and God makes no appetite in vain. and therefore it must have a purpose cf. Aquinas’ theological argument that sex is good and would have existed apart from the fall. 

p.57  Loving knowledge for its own sake is not a good thing.

p.58 We need an intellectual defence against the heathen; bad philosophy needs to be answered.

p. 58 We need an intimate knowledge of the past to understand the present. and to deal with the great cataract fo nonsense that flows from the press and the microphone of one’s own age.

` p.61   Leave the future in God’s hands. We may as well for God will certainly retain it whether we like it or not.

From “Why I am not a pacifist”  (1940)

p.64 Conscience is not a separate faculty like one of the sense, but the conscience can be altered by argument.

p.65  There are two forms of conscience: (i) the pressure a man feels upon his will to do what he thinks is right; (ii) his judgment as to what the content of right and wrong are. 

“Transposition” (1944)An interesting Pentecost sermon preached at Oxford about heaven. Lewis himself seemed not to be completely happy with this and in 1961 added a substantial argument at p. 107 printed  in this addition. Because he is so intent on examining “the beatific vision” which I certainly agree is very important, he does not address the notion of a renewed kingdom of God on earth which I believe is central to understanding life after death, and thus this essay held less interest for me.

“Is Theology Poetry?”  (1944)  I loved this essay but the lecture, given to the Oxford Socratic Club,  is so complex and involved and requires following up so many hares running through so many burroughs in both theology and literature that it is impossible to summarise or pick out “zingers”. Suffice to say that theology has some poetic components and nature but in totality it is much, much more! This is an essay to savour and prove over a year or two of thought.

 “The Inner Ring”  (1944) was the annual commemoration lecture delivered at Kings College and was a healthy reminder to the students that being “in” was a superficial and dangerous activity and goal, bound to end in distress and much better ignored. Salutary and helpful.

“Membership” (1945)  is an excellent lecture analysing  he dangers of attempting to be a “solitary” Christian. The Church, for all its tensions and shortcomings, is an essential component of Christian experience.

“On Forgiveness” (1947) is a short sermon reminding us that most often when we make confession to God in prayer we are often  actually making excuses for ourselves and letting ourselves off the hook very lightly. A plea for honesty in our walk with God.

“A Slip of the Tongue” (1956) was Lewis’s last sermon, preached at Evensong in the Chapel of Magdalen College in Cambridge. It is a beautiful little sermon reminding us of that voice we have all heard in our private prayers which says: …to be careful, to keep my head, not to go too far, not to burn my boats.  I come into the presence of God with a great fear lest anything should happen to me within that presence which will prove too intolerable inconvenient when I have come out again into my “ordinary” life. I don’t want to be carried away into any resolution which I shall afterwards regret…which will run up to big a bill to pay…for I know I shall be feeling quite different after breakfast! This sermon reminds me of the words of a former Archbishop of Melbourne who once admitted to a bunch of us meeting somewhere that sometimes in the morning he prays: “Lord please don’t let anything happen today!”.  Lewis’s final sermon closes with We may never, this side of death, drive the invader out of our territory, but we must be in the Resistance, not in the Vichy Government. And this, so far as I can yet see, must be begun every day. Our morning prayer should be something like..grant me to make an unflawed beginning today, for I have done nothing yet. 


Joy Cullen: The Reverend George Cox: ‘A Man of Many Parts’, p/b, Mornington & District Historical Society, 2019

Teacher and historian Joy Cullen has uncovered a remarkablestory with her investigation into the “Renaissance life” of  the Gippsland clergyman, fire-fighting, naturalist, historian and community leader the Reverend George Cox. Cox was a parochial reader in Coalville Narracan and Mirboo North before being ordained deacon and priest in 1899 at Mirboo North and later St Mary’s Caulfield. In 1908 he returned to Gippsland and served as rector of Neerim South from 1908 – 1910 and at Yarram Yarram District from 1910 – 1915 when he enlisted in the AIF and served as a staff sergeant and unofficial padre in the Langwarrin Camp isolation hospital. Cox “retired” from the ministry due to ill health after the war but continued to serve in many effective ways in the parish of St Peter’s Mornington for 27 years until his death in 1946

What is remarkable about this man is the combination of his outstanding leadership and vocational evangelistic ministry skills which included running scout groups, youth groups, camping trips and his own outstanding tenor singing. His much loved parish ministry would be a good story in itself but Cox had two other  consuming passions.

Cox was a quite remarkable scientific field naturalist and fossil collector and his  notes and presentations on the flora, fauna and geology of both Gippsland and the Mornington Peninsula illustrated with his “powerful electric lantern with micro projection”, his formation of a children’s naturalist club and his notes and many contributions to The Victorian Naturalist are now held by the State Library of Victoria.

Quite separate from these activities Cox was an outstanding historian of early Gippsland and the  Mornington Peninsula. Cullen notes that his curiosity, research skills and energy resulted in an ongoing association with the History Society of Melbourne [Now the Royal Historical Society of Victoria] as well as the History Society of Melbourne where he read many formal papers. Cullen notes that Cox had an evidenced-based approach to history which was based on independent research (and which sometimes led into serious arguments)  and his cautious approach to premature publication demonstrated his care for accuracy and the avoidance of personal bias. A mark of Cox’s significance as a Gippsland historian was his invitation by Albert E Clark to Cox to write the Preface to his history of the Church in Gippsland, The Church of our Fathers. 

This remarkable little booklet comes with many beautifully presented photographs and detailed references.  George Cox was a true blue Aussie polymath and Renaissance man. This is a story to inspire and encourage all Gippslanders today as we continue to fight those fires, both literally and spiritually.

Timothy Keller: The Reason For God: Belief in God in an Age of Scepticism, p/b, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 2009

Timothy Keller founded the extraordinarily popular Manhattan Redeemer Presbyterian Church which spawned a significant number of similar centres in New York and elsewhere. He now leads Redeemer City to City which trains pastors for ministry in cities globally.

The Reason for God is a thoughtful and demanding read in which he takes on the current Western culture of scepticism and indeed persecution of Christian faith in the Western world. The first seven chapters deal with common critiques of C21st Christian faith:

There can’t be just One true religion

How could a good God allow suffering?

Christianity is a straitjacket

The church is responsible for so much injustice

How can a loving God send people to Hell?

Science has disproved Christianity  and

You can’t take the Bible literally.

The second half of the book argues for the validity of seven reasons for faith:

– The clues in the world and in mankind that God exists

– How can we have any knowledge of God?

– The horror of human evil and inhumanity alongside the common view that the concept of sin is offensive and/or ludicrous to many

  • The key difference between Christianity and all other world faiths ..all other major faiths have founders who are teachers who show the way to salvation. Only Jesus claimed to actually be the way of salvation hiimself. 
  • The story and validity of the Cross
  • The reality of the Resurrection
  • The dance of God.

Much of Keller’s argument is based on actual conversations held with attendees, both believers and non-believers, of Manhattan Redeemer Presbyterian Church. Some chapters of this book are more difficult than others. The whole book is pitched at the level of an educated enquirer and it demands careful and logical thought. It would be ideal as a study book for seekers and it comes with careful referencing, additional detailed notes and a very useful index. I have read many books of apologetics in my life. This one would have to be in the top two or three.   5 stars and rising.

Amy Carmichael: “If”, London, S.P.C.K, 1963

This little book has been with me in times of spiritual need for well over fifty years. Born out of the pressures and challenges of Amy Carmichael’s selfless ministry in creating and working faithfully in the Dohnavur Fellowship in India, “If” is a very personal meditation on Calvary Love…the greatest love of all is not a pop song as it turns out but the love of Jesus of Nazareth for the world demonstrated on a lonely garden in Gethsemane and an even lonelier  cross on a hill outside Jerusalem. 

If”  contains a set of gently worded but spiritually demanding, honest and deeply personal questionings of our spiritual thought life and habits (many of them common and unhelpful habits). It is not attacking writing. It is a meditation, for self examination, for reflection, for self-knowledge, for self-repair and finally for the comfort that only the Holy Spirit can bring. 

The realisation that the greatest spiritual leaders and healers are after all only human and in need of forgiveness encourages us to pause, ponder and re-engage the heartbeat of our own spiritual journey.  There are books we always come back to. This one is a keeper.

Challenging ideas from Timothy Keller’s “The Reason For God” [London, Hodder & Stoughton, 2009]

Tim Keller , Founder of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in Manhattan.

Challenging ideas from Timothy Keller: The  Reason For God: Belief  in an Age of Scepticism, p/b, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 2009

p xvi f Both religious belief and scepticism are on the rise…surely that should lead to self-examination. The time for making elegant dismissive gestures towards the other sides past. Something more is required. But what?….each side should look at doubt in a radically new way…believers should acknowledge and wrestle with doubts…sceptics must learn to look for a type of faith hidden within their reasoning.

p xx  Many see both sides in the ‘culture war’ making individual freedom and personal happiness the ultimate value rather than God and the common good. Liberals’ individualism comes out in their views of abortion, sex and marriage. Conservatives’ individualism comes out in their deep distrust of the public sector and in their understanding of poverty as simply a failure of personal responsibility.

p15  Everyone lives out of some narrative of identity, whether it is thought out and reflected upon or not.

p19 God’s grace does not come to people who morally outperform others, but to those who admit their failure to perform. 

P20f  It is common to say that ‘fundamentalism’ leads to violence, yet as we have seen, all of us have fundamental, unprovable faith commitments that we think are superior to those of others.  The real question, then, is which fundamentals will lead their believers to be the most loving and receptive to those with whom they differ?

p23  Tucked away within the assertion that the world is filled with pointless evil [and therefore there cannot be a God] is a hidden premise, namely, that if evil appears pointless to me, then it must be pointless…eg  Joseph story…although we can’t see it at the time, some ‘evils’ end up providing positive outcomes.   A tough one this…easier to write about I suspect than to live through. 

p25 If you have a God great and transcendent enough to be mad at because he hasn’t stopped evil and suffering in the world, then you have (at the same moment) a God great and transcendent enough to have good reasons for allowing it to continue that you can’t know. Indeed you can’t have it both ways.  [As above]

p27 The problem of evil is a problem for atheists as well as believers. …a secular way of looking at the world has no place for genuine moral obligation  of any sort….

p29f  Jesus’ suffering on the Cross goes far beyond that of Christian martyrs.  Jesus came to be with the Father for an interlude before his betrayal, but found hell rather than heaven open before him, and he staggered. On the cross, Jesus’s cry of dereliction – ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?’ – is a deeply relational statement….Jesus still uses the language of intimacy – ‘my God’ – even as he experiences infinite separation from the Father.

p32.  Resurrection = Restoration:  this means that every horrible thing that ever happened will not only be undone and repaired but will in some way make the eventual glory and joy even greater. 

p33 Sam Gamgee to Gandalf [Lord of the Rings]  Is everything sad going to come untrue? The answer of Christianity to that question is – yes.

p35   Is a belief in absolute truth the enemy of freedom? Most people I’ve met in New York City believe that it is….p37 Christianity looks like an enemy of social cohesion, cultural adaptability and even authentic personhood. However, this objection is based on mistakes about the nature of truth, community, Christianity, and of liberty itself.

p38  Christianity requires certain beliefs in order to be a member of its community, but, p.39 Every community holds in common some beliefs that necessarily create boundaries, including some people and excluding others from its circle.

p42 p.255 ch.3 fn. 22  Missionaries do impose their own culture on their converts, playing down some cultural aspects and playing up others but eventually converts come to terms with their own culture and traditions, jettisoning some things and keeping others.

p44.   There is no “Christian culture” the way there is an “Islamic culture” which can be recognised  everywhere.

p45   In current Western culture, freedom to determine our own moral standards is considered  a necessity fo being fully human…. This oversimplifies, however. Freedom cannot be defined in strictly negative terms, as the absence of confinement and constraint. In fact, in many cases, confinement and constraint is actually a means to liberation. eg the restriction of many hours of time for a musician to develop the skills to unleash the talent and ability that would otherwise go untapped…p46 if we only grow intellectually, vocationally and physically through judicious constraints – why would it not also be true for spiritual and moral growth?

p47  To truly love you have to lose independence

p49  In the most radical way, God has adjusted to us —in his incarnation and atonement.

p53  Christian theology has taught what is known as common grace. James 1:17 says, ‘Every good and perfect gift comes down from above…from the father of lights.’

p256 ch. 4 fn2 ..If there is a God, you are, in a sense, alone with HIm. [C.S. Lewis]

p53f   The mistaken belief that a person must ‘clean up’ his or her own life in order to merit God’s presence is not Christianity…’The church is a hospital for sinners, not a museum for saints.’

p57 Think of people you consider fanatical. They’re overbearing, self-righteous, opinionated, insensitive and harsh. Why? It’s not because they are too Christian but because they are not Christian enough. They are fanatically zealous and courageous, but they are not fanatically humble, sensitive, loving, empathetic, forgiving or understanding – as Christ was.

p260  Ch5 fn10  The Bible clearly proposes that heaven and hell are actual realities, but also indicates that all language about them is allusive, metaphorical and partial.

p75  Czeslaw Milosz, the Nobel Prize-winning Polish poet, wrote the remarkable essay ‘The Discreet Charms of Nihilism’. In it he remembers how Marx had called religion ‘the opiate of the people’ because the promise of an afterlife (Marx said) led the poor and the working class to put up with unjust social conditions. But, Milosz continued: “And now we are witnessing a transformation. A true opium of the people is a belief in nothingness after death—the huge solace of thinking that our betrayals, greed, cowardice, murders are not going to be judged….[but] all religions recognize that our deeds are imperishable…..if there is no divine justice, belief in a loving God is meaningless. 

p80  We must not make settled, final decisions about anyone’s spiritual state or fate. 

p80  Because Christians believe souls don’t die, they also believe that moral and spiritual errors effect the soul forever….  [How does this square with p32 above…resurrection = restoration?  It also disallows annihilatiionism ] 

p82  I found no other religious text outside of the Bible that said God created the world out of love and delight. 

p83 the God of love is also a God of judgement who will put all things in the world to rights in the end. The belief in a God of pure love—who accepts everyone and judges no one — is a powerful act of faith. Not only is there no evidence for it in the natural order, but there is almost no historical, religious textual support for it outside Christianity. The more one looks at it, the less justified it appears.

p263 fn4 ch 7:  I take the whole Bible to be reliable not because I can somehow ‘prove’  it all to be factual. I accept it because I believe in Jesus and that was his view of the Bible.

p111.  Some texts may not teach what they at first appear to teach. Some people, however, have studied particular biblical texts carefully and come to understand what they teach, and yet they still find them outrageous and regressive. What should they do then?  I urge people to consider that their problem with some texts might be based on an unexamined belief in the superiority of their historical moment over all others.   We must not universalise our time any more that we should universalise our culture. Think of the very term ‘regressive’. To reject the Bible as regressive is to assume that you have now arrived at the ultimate historic moment, form which all that is regressive and progressive can be discerned. That belief is surely as narrow and exclusive as the views in the Bible you regard as offensive.

p112f  We should make sure we distinguish between the major themes and message of the Bible and its less primary teachings. The Bible talks about the person and work of Christ and also about how widows should be regarded in the church. The first of these subjects is much more foundational. Without it the secondary teachings don’t make sense. We should therefore consider the Bible’s teachings in their proper order…You may appeal , ‘But I can’t accept the Bible if what it says about gender is outmoded.’ I would respond to that with this question — are you saying that because you don’t like what the Bible says about sex that Jesus couldn’t have been raised from the dead?…If Jesus is not who he said he is, why should we care what the Bible says about anything else?

p114 If you pick and choose what you want to believe and reject the rest, how will you ever have a God who can contradict you? You won’t! You’ll have a Stepford God. If God is not challenging you, your God is not have a God of your own making.

p117  …there are no truly ‘generic’ non-denominational Christians. 

p145  ….our culture differs from all others that have gone before. People still have strong moral convictions,  but unlike people in other times and places, they don’t have any visible basis for why they find some things to be evil and other things good.  In the West we now have a climate of complete moral relativism.

p152 …. Nietzsche’s  well-known insistence that, if God is dead, any and all morality of love and human rights is baseless. If there is no God, argue Nietzsche, Sartres and others, there can be no good reason to be kind, to be loving or to work for peace.

p275f  Ch 10 fn 8:  list of Kierkegaard’s “god-substitutes.’     Very instructive! 

p165   An identity not based on God also leads inevitably to deep forms of addiction…family, work, achievement, hobbies etc. cf Augustine: ‘our loves are not rightly ordered.’

p166 problem of unresolved bitterness and the importance of Rwanda …there can be no forgiveness without accountability and repentance.

p171f  Kierkegaard: The almost impossible hard thing is to hand over your whole self to Christ.  But it is far easier than what we are all trying to do instead. For what we are trying to do is remain what we call ‘ourselves’ —our personal happiness centred on money or pleasure or ambition—and hoping, despite this, to behave honestly and chastely and humbly. And that is exactly what Christ warned us you cannot do….I must be ploughed up and re-sown.

p277 Ch 11 fn 1 virtually all religions require to one degree or another a form of self-salvation through merit… Is Christianity then not a religion?

p178  The Devil, if anything, prefers Pharisees…they are more unhappy than either mature Christians or irreligious people , and they do a lot more spiritual damage.

p193  The importance of substitutionary atonement.  [Constantly under fire today ]..if you take away the Cross we do not have a God of love…he offers his own lifeblood in order to honour moral justice and merciful love so that some day he can destroy all evil without destroying us.

p202  re doubts about the resurrection:  If Jesus rose from the dead, then you have to accept all that he said;  if he didn’t rise from the dead, then why worry about any of what he said?

p202.  If there was no resurrection where did the Christian church come from?

p208  [Christianity began with] the explosion of a New Worldview. It was an explosion…unlike the gradual evolution of all other religions even Islam.

p215 The Trinity …perichoresis = “Flowing around”

p216 The Trinity makes love possible. If God is unipersonal, then until God created other beings there was no love, since love is something one person has for another…therefore love would not be of the essence of God nor at the heart of the universe if there was no Trinity.


Andreas Loewe and Katherine Firth; Journeying With Bonhoeffer: Six Steps on the Path of Discipleship,  p/b, 127 pages, Sydney, Morning Star Publishing, 2019

2020 is the 75th anniversary of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s martyrdom in the Flossenbürg concentration camp in Bavaria just three weeks before the camp was liberated by US army soldiers and World War 2 ended. Dr Andreas Lowe, Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral Melbourne, church historian and expert on Protestant German history  and Katherine Firth, translator, academic, poet and educator   are both fluent in German. Working together they have produced “two books in one” which together, in the form of a powerful new biography of Bonhoeffer and six lessons for Lent,  enrich our understanding of Luke’s Gospel for the Lenten season and at the same time invite us drink deeply at the well of Bonhoeffer’s terse, demanding and trenchantly challenging theology in his book The Cost of Discipleship and in fresh translations by Firth of some of his intensely personal poetry.

Younger folk today will be less familiar with Bonhoeffer than the post world war 2 generation. They will not have heard his clarion call that when Christ calls us he calls us, his call leads to death; that God’s grace is costly, because it is costly to God, it cost him his Son; that discipleship is more than formulaic worship; that Christ did not call his disciples to a life of holy introspection, but a life of doing; that if we truly turn to Christ, then we need to shun those who claim to be alternative mediators; that as followers of Jesus Christ, then, we cannot remain hidden, and many more shafts which, once read, are not easily forgotten. 

Firth’s translations of Bonhoeffer’s poems  are fresh and immediate. Here are the last lines of Who Am I? (July 1944). 

Who am I? This or That?

Am I today this, then, and tomorrow something else?

Am I both at the same time? In front of people a hypocrite

and in front of myself a contemptible, whiny weakling?

Or, in the same way, which is still in me, the beaten army

that in disorder gives way in front of the

victory that has already been won?

Who am I? These solitary questions mock me.

As well: who I am, You know me, Yours am I, O God!

Ideal for a Lenten study group, this little book contains chapter questions, careful footnotes, further reading suggestions and a useful index. To be read with care …there is dynamite here …but also good comfort!  5 stars

Daniher, Neale:  When All is Said and Done, co-writer, Warwick Green, 

h/b, Sydney, Macmillan, 2019

I was at the MCG in 2006 when Melbourne last played in an AFL premiership grand  final match. Demon supporters had high hopes but Essendon’s “baby bombers” had only lost one match for the whole year and Melbourne was crunched badly. Melbourne’s coach Neale Daniher was angry and disappointed by his team’s capitulation but it was to be his only grand final appearance with the Demons in ten years of coaching despite getting the Dees to six finals series in nine years.  Now, fighting hard against the even tougher enemy of Motor Neurone Disease Daniher has written an intimate and honest account of his childhood background, education, family life, sporting achievements and his current fight to the death.

As well as giving the reader generous insight into his own character which he himself admits was intense, prickly and uninterested in small talk and trivia, this book also seeks to offer a philosophy of life with chapters on leadership, knowing yourself, not expecting a free ride, learning from others, taking the plunge, creating balance, admitting weaknesses, keeping calm, believing in yourself, mixing passion with purpose and not being too hard-arsed, amongst many other life secrets.

For me the life story was fascinating and a very enjoyable read, but the life coaching was too much, too repetitive and in need of editing. To be fair as a semi-retired teacher thirteen years older than Daniher, the energetic advice he offers about how to live life well has come too late to make much dint in my self-indulgent character. Also to be fair, Daniher in a “Letter to my grandchildren “ on p353 admits that they probably won’t take his advice either! …Don’t believe a word your grandfather has told you. Put everything I’ve said to the Bunsen Burner of your own life. Play on!

In spite of my world-weariness about life coaching, this book has assembled an excellent array of quotable quotes that bear close attention in any person’s life. Some which stood out for me I have listed below.

p35:   I believe the mark of a person is not what he or she thinks, says or feels —in the end, I believe we are measured by what we actually do

p38: You’re not special, but you could become special, you could do something special. You have the opportunity in life, but it’s up to you to reveal your character and make the most of that opportunity across your lifetime. Go out and do it.

p45: You work hard but you can’t control everything.”

p67:  Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards.

p50:  Ships are safe in the harbour, but it’s not what they are built for.

p.76:  Life doesn’t promise to be fair but it does offer opportunity.

p. 78: Do not try to be a man of success but try to be a man of value. [Einstein]

p 82: God gave you two eyes, two ears, and one mouth…so listen and observe  more than  you talk.  {Sister Teresita, primary school teacher]

p. 95: Is that all there is?

p. 97 We can use other people’s knowledge, but we can’t use their wisdom.

p.106 Honesty needs to be delivered in the right manner

p106  The shoe that fits one person, pinches another.  [Jung]

p129  It’s not the critic who counts. [Theodore Rooseveldt]

p. 139  The folly of relying on your meaning in life coming from something that is completely selfish.

p.146  Daniher studied theology at Melbourne University to better understand his faith.

p.150  Put your own mask on first before coming to help others [airline advice]

p152  If we cannot trust, then neither can we find love nor joy

p.156 Don’t wear your busyness as a badge of honour.

p157  Courage is the commitment to begin without any guarantee of success. [Goethe]

p.178  Feat is the reaction; courage is a decision.

p.214  Minds, not bodies, give up first.

p258  Be Yourself! Everyone else is taken.  [Oscar Wilde]

p284  The most secure prisons are the ones we construct for ourselves. [Gordon Livingstone, US psychiatrist]

p. 315  The least of things with a meaning is worth more in life than the greatest of things without it  [Carl Jung]

p. 322   Success is never final

Failure is never fatal. 

A useful read!  4 stars

Thabo Makgoba:  Faith and Courage: Praying With Mandela, h/b, 246 pages including six very useful appendices. Foreward by Graça Machel, London, SPCK, 2019

What priest or Christian leader has never had pastoral counselling that blew up in their face or ministry initiatives that were so disastrous they wanted to quit? If this is you then here is a book to give you faith and courage! 

Archbishop Thabo Makgoba is the current Metropolitan of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the youngest person ever to be elected to this position. He is also chair of the International Design Group for the Lambeth Conference in 2020. This is the story of a poor young black lad who’s ancestors were royalty living in the high veldt beautifully forested escarpment of south east Africa. It was one of the last cultures to be hunted down and colonised by British rulers with the help of 8000 Swazi allies.

His childhood was far from royal, growing up in poverty with his twin sister in the overcrowded, poor, unkempt and downtrodden township of Alexandra. His home amounted to two rooms which together with another house and other backyard rooms housed around 20 families in total with four outside ‘bucket” toilets for them all.   His father who was a pastor of the Zion Christian Church, had at least four other wives and families  and  was  therefore often absent from home. It was a torrid chidhood. Apartheid ruled, pass laws were strict, street gangs dominated, life was cheap and dead bodies were often found on the street. Yet his father was ambitious for his tall young son who clearly had a mind to study. Somehow, often travelling two hours each way to better schools Thabo gained a strong secondary education and did well enough to gain entry to the Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg where he studied science, education and psychology.

It seems from the start that Thabo was destined for leadership and his drive for excellence was allied with a passion to see justice and fairness achieved for the poor and dispossessed. At University he became involved with the Anglican Students Federation and as a committee member he became an underground member of the ANC, the African National Congress, gradually overcoming his terror of “whites”. In addition he joined the Release Mandella Campaign and became a “player” in Anglican synods, attracting attention. Almost inevitably he was targeted for ordination and eventually added theology to his list of studies.

The book charts with exceptional honesty the triumphs and failures of his career including his work as teacher, psychologist, pastor,  academic, College Dean, parish priest, Bishop and Archbishop. His forceful personality often got him into scrapes with the harsh pass laws, with colleagues and opponents and eventually with high ranking movers and shakers in the church including Archbishop Tutu. At the same time we learn of his marriage and family and the tragedy of the death of his twin sister.  

One cannot but be amazed by Thabo’s courage in facing all the tough issues whether political, the draining psychological counselling of drug addicts, the horrific violence against women, the trauma of spinally injured mine workers, and the bitter and physically dangerous infighting between overly zealous church members which sometimes ended with guns! Challenged by his mentors for being a minister without mentioning Christ, it is sometimes difficult in the first half of the book to see a priest at work rather than a social worker.

This all changes when Mandela’s third wife Graça Machel approached Thabo to support Mandela spiritually in the last five years of his life. Mandela’s importance to South Africa and its peoples was so overwhelming that it was difficult for anyone to be close to him. Thabo manages to break through this wall and a friendship and spiritual bond developed between him, Graça and Mandela. The prayers which Thabo records become a powerful statement of the “faith and courage’ needed to live in the new hard world of a post-apartheid South Africa especially in the period of the corrupt government of President Zuma. The book forces Western Christians especially to face up to the deep hurts  caused by the often brutal European colonisation of the rest of the world.

Thabo Makgoba is not the perfect priest and he is not without selfish ambition. He has successes and failures. Some things he is good at become so huge and burdensome he has to give them up. It is in fact the honest story of a faithful priest who simply saw needs and tried to help. Powerful indeed is his call for Anglicans to maintain unity along with their current deep divisions. 4 stars

Samuel Johnson: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, Ed. & Intro.,  D. J. Enright, 

p/b, Ringwood, Penguin, 1979 [1759].

This little book (111 pages in my edition) provides a perfect example of “Johnsonian style”..concise, unadorned, perspicuous, logical, witty and genuinely thought provoking. Set in a mysterious land of pure delight and happiness and from which escape is difficult,  Prince Rasselas is restless in his life of saturated joy and longs to explore the difficult, rude and uncomfortable world of the majority of mankind. Aided by the insightful poet Imlac, and accompanied by his sister Nekayah and her maid Pekuah, Rasselas does find a way out of Abissinia and journeys in several lands with several adventures, in the meantime engaged in philosophic discussion about poetry, happiness, marriage, wealth, insanity, poverty, science, flying, astronomy, life after death and much besides. Their journey, which included considerable time in Egypt, including the abduction and rescue of Pekuah during a visit to the pyramids  ends with a visit to the catacombs and a discussion about life after death. Their final decision was to return to Abissinia persuaded that life was brief, and that knowledge,  justice, trust in God and eternity and the varied “stream of life” itself was as close to happiness that one could wish for.  A thoughtful and helpful read. 5 stars.

Thoughtful and challenging thoughts from Andreas Loewe and Katherine Firth: Journeying With Bonhoeffer: Six Steps on the Path of Discipleship, p/b, Sydney, Morning Star, 2001

Thoughtful and challenging thoughts from Andreas Loewe and Katherine Firth: Journeying With Bonhoeffer: Six Steps on the Path of Discipleship, p/b, Sydney, Morning Star, 2001

This little book is packed with inspiration. Katherine Firth has written a new biography of Bonhoeffer and has also provided a fresh translation of a number of Bonhoeffer’s poems. Firth is fluent in German and herself a poet.  This work is complemented by six Bible studies for Lent from Luke’s Gospel written by Andreas Loewe.  The studies from Luke  are seen through the lens of ideas and frequently quotations emerging from Bonhoeffer’s challenging book The Cost of Discipleship as well as other material from a newly published German text of Bonhoeffer’s works.Noted below are some ideas from this jointly authored book which resonated powerfully with me. 

p.33  Firth notes the following about Bonhoeffer’s execution in the dying days of World War 2 at the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp in Bavaria. The prison doctor claimed that Bonhoeffer walked to the scaffold at peace and looking noble ‘at the place of execution, he again said a short prayer and then climbed the few steps to the gallows, brave and composed.  His death ensued after a few seconds’ — a story that has been repeated many times, including in the “New King James Version Modern Life Study Bible”. However the prison doctor’s job was to revive people as they were being executed so that the punishment would last as long as possible, so his story is considered unreliable by modern historians. Other witnesses say the execution took six hours, which would be consistent with the usual practice. We can see why von Dohnányi’s sedation was, in fact, a kindness. [von Dohnányi was a fellow conspirator  executed with Bonhoeffer; his German anti Hitler doctor had heavily sedated him before his execution]. We know Canaris [a fellow conspirator with Bonhoeffer and the leader of the attempted coup] was stripped naked as a humiliation before being hanged and it is likely this was true for all the conspirators.  In short, Bonhoeffer’s death was as horrific as he expected.

p. 44: Bonhoeffer: – ‘Levi, the tax collector the toll collector, and the four fishermen hear and obey, and do what Jesus commands them to do….they simply get up and follow. They hear the Word and do it without questioning whether or not they fully understand that is asked of them. Faith will grow out of that first ‘doing’, that first stepping out.’

p. 45-46: Bonhoeffer: ‘But if they want to learn to believe in God, they have to follow the Son of God incarnate and walk with him.’  Andreas Loewe: We actually need to get up and walk with Jesus, in order to be his disciples. Bonhoeffer shows discipleship is not just having knowledge about God, but learning to believe in God….The first step leads us away from our preoccupation with our own lives to life with Jesus.

p.54:  Andreas Loewe: …Jesus reminded him [the lawyer whose question prompted the parable of the Good Samaritan], …that in order to live forever with him, which is what eternal life is, he needed to do more than formulaic following of God’s commandments.

p.56:  Andreas Loewe notes that Bonhoeffer highlights ‘inadequate obedience’ …The call is made, and we want to obey and follow, but the demands the ‘doing part’ of the call makes on us are too hard.”  Bonhoeffer also notes “inadequate faith”.  Andreas Loewe comments: the lawyer sees an ambiguity in the command ..[to love your neighbour as yourself] …he questions, ‘who then is my neighbour’ and, unable to accept the command, is left behind by Jesus.  That is one of the slyest forms of disobedience to God’s call. Loewe quotes Bonhoeffer again: What then happens is that people get so stubborn in their disobedience…that they claim they can no longer discern between what is good and what is God’s command. They claim it is ambiguous and permits various interpretations.

p65:  Commenting on the parables of the lost sheep and the lost coin, Andreas Loewe notes: If limitless grace is careless and wasteful, these parables show us what God thinks grace is worth….they also show us how tireless Christ is in his seeking for those who are lost: raking through the dust and debris of our spiritual homes in the same way a householder woman cleaned out every nook and cranny of her own…I wonder whether we wish to be found in this way, whether we wish for our lives to be turned upside down by Christ?

p66.  Andreas Loewe asks us about how we feel when Christ goes off looking for other lost sheep after we ourselves have been found and welcomed. There can be…a sense of loss as the shepherd sets out to search for, call and bring in other lost sheep.

p67:  Andreas Loewe comments on Bonhoeffer’s question: “What does it mean to cheapen grace?”  Loewe writes: There is a clear line in Bonhoeffer’s thinking between extending Christ’s invitation to come and follow him to all people, and telling all people that they are all right in what they believe. The two, for Bonhoeffer, are utterly incompatible: we pour away Christ’s love when we confirm others in their unbelief. Because belief is costly. Loewe quotes Bonhoeffer: “Is the price we are paying today with collapse of the organised churches anything else but an inevitable consequence of grace acquired too cheaply? We gave away preaching and sacraments cheaply, performed baptisms and confirmations ; we absolved an entire people, unquestioned and unconditionally; out of human love we handed over what holy to the scornful and unbelievers.”

p.69-70  Loewe suggests that the answer to Jesus’ questions in Luke 15 {“what man of you?” (lost sheep) and “what woman?” (lost coin)] is “few people”!   Most of us would be content with the other 99 sheep or the other nine silver coins and thus Loewe further notes: there is no costly risk-taking among them, and (thus) there is also no rejoicing…Luke shows us the extravagant love of God…This is  the meaning of  Bonhoeffer’s phrase “God’s costly grace”. Loewe notes: Jesus brings light and order to the house, that is true. But that light and order comes at the cost of breaking all the habits that prefer darkness and mess.

p72 Bonhoeffer concludes: Above all, grace is costly, because it was costly to God, because it cost the life of God’s son.

p73. In question 5 Loewe notes. God’s love is also entirely free. Do we personally, or in our community, require people to strive to deserve grace, when grace comes freely? Do you exert ‘strength, effort and discipline which is unnecessary, even dangerous, since everything is already prepared, and fulfilled by grace?  ….an excellent and demanding question!

p.77  Andreas Loewe quotes Bonhoeffer’s words: The cross is suffering with Christ. ….The cross is not random suffering, but necessary suffering. The cross is not suffering that stems from natural existence; it is suffering that comes from being a Christian. The essence of the cross is not suffering alone; it is suffering and being rejected….A Christianity that no longer took discipleship seriously remade the Gospel into only the solace of cheap grace. Moreover it drew no line between natural and Christian existence….Here it has been forgotten that the cross always means being rejected, that the cross includes the shame of suffering. Being shunned, despised, and deserted by people …is an essential feature of the suffering of the cross, which cannot be comprehended by a Christianity that is unable to differentiate between a citizen’s ordinary existence and Christian existence.

p.78f. Andreas quotes Bonhoeffer: “The cross is not random suffering, but necessary suffering.” Andreas comments…following Jesus means rejection and suffering. It means shouldering daily the cross that Christ himself bears …It is in this shared bearing that we are enabled to undertake the daily task of denial of self in order to follow Christ.

p.80f  Andreas Loewe notes that  Bonhoeffer makes a sharp distinction between suffering and rejection. Only one of the two carries shame…..Rejection goes well beyond suffering, takes away and admiration, and sympathy. Bonhoeffer writes: Rejection removed all dignity and honour from [Jesus’ ] suffering. It had to be dishonourable suffering….Loewe notes that Bonhoeffer comments that from the beginning of the church’s story …suffering and rejection, self-denial and death to self are an integral part of our faith…Bonhoeffer is uncompromising. We cannot try to avoid suffering because ‘that is the way for Satan to enter the church.’ These comments must be seen in particular in the light of the establishment of the Nazi Reich Church with its glorification of Hitler and the Aryan race.

p.82f  Andreas Loewe notes that for Bonhoeffer, ‘suffering’ does not mean unremitting torment, nor seeking out acts of self-martyrdom or ascetic exercises. Instead it means freedom from the fear of suffering. If we are not afraid of suffering, or losing our possessions, of looking foolish —then we cannot be imprisoned by these things….Bonhoeffer writes; “therefore, once again, before the law of discipleship is proclaimed, even the disciples must be set free.” Andreas comments; The freedom from yourself does not mean replacing yourself with a void. It means replacing yourself with knowing Christ. Bonhoeffer uses “kennen” here (knowing from personal relationship) rather than “wissen” (knowing about something or someone)

p86f  Andreas Loewe notes:  No-one may judge how much someone else can or should suffer. He quotes Bonhoeffer: “Everyone gets a different amount” of suffering, so that our cross is one we can carry.

p90  Bonhoeffer reading: Jesus’ call to discipleship makes the disciple into a single individual. Whether disciples want to or not, they have to make a decision; each is called alond.. each has to decide alone..Each must follow alone…Out of fear of such aloneness, a human being seeks safety in the people and things around them.

p91  Andreas Loewe: Christ called [his disciples] not to a life of holy introspection , but a life of active doing in his name.

p93  Andreas Loewe: Discipleship is a life-long commitment…Before we commit, we too should consider whether we are able to embark on the costly journey of daily carrying the cross and following Jesus. In Bonhoeffer’s case, he was choosing to set out to wage a war and build an edifice he knew he was likely to lose in this world.

p94f  Andreas Loewe: Christ leaves room for a genuine decision. Individuals are each given the opportunity to reject the invitation, are given space for the realisation that Jesus is not for them. That is a fair response to Jesus’ call: not all will follow. But those who do accept Jesus’ call, need to put Jesus above all. Andreas quotes Bonhoeffer: Christ intends to make the human being lonely. As individuals they should see nothing except him who called them…It is impossible for a human being to avoid ever being left by another. In human relationships, we constantly move away and return, until we move away from this life through death. But God is able to be with us always.

However this does not mean that we should never work to begin in relationship with other humans; simply that we should do so through Christ…Christ needs to mediate all relationships…In becoming human, Jesus put himself between me and the given circumstances of the world. 

p96 Andreas Loewe writes: If we truly turn to Christ, then we need to shun those who claim to be alternative mediators. And that is what ‘hating ‘ the world means….The idea that the followers of Jesus may relate to the world apart from their discipleship is alien to Bonhoeffer.

p102 Bonhoeffer writes: Human beings should not be feared. They cannot do much to the disciples of Jesus. Their power stops with the disciples’ physical death…

p105  Bonhoeffer writes: Who can claim the people’s love and sacrifice so exclusively, if not the enemy of humanity or the Saviour of humanity? Who will carry the sword into their homes, if not the devil or Christ, the Prince of Peace?

p106  Bonhoeffer writes: Whenever Christ calls, his call leads us to death…the cross stands at the beginning or our community with Christ.  Andreas Loewe writes: when we do what Christ calls us to do, we become Christ-bearers to others.

p107  Andreas Loewe writes: As followers of Jesus Christ, then, we cannot remain hidden, and leave the witnessing about the One who called us to “the stones of Jerusalem that would shout out”.

p111  Andreas Loewe asks: How can we carry on a form of ‘living dying’ that includes joy and ‘complete assurance for every new day.’


William Styron: Sophie’s Choice, p/b, London, Vintage, 2000 (1979)

This is an epic, perhaps overlong novel in many parts.  In the first instance it is a novel about the unsuccessful and almost humorous search to lose his virginity by a 22 year old impecunious literature student and would be writer from Virginia, but living in New York. These sections throughout the book are tedious, dismal, voyeuristic,  unnecessarily specific and coarse as well as being exhausting to read. 

In the second instance it is a tale of an ultimately doomed love affair between the  beautiful and exotic Polish holocaust survivor Sophie Zawistowksa and highly intelligent but fundamentally flawed and paranoid schizophrenic New Yorker Nathan Landau. This account is frightening, instructive and attention gripping and provides the emotional centre of the novel.

Thirdly, through sometimes awkwardly introduced through flash backs from Sophie, the novel is a compelling reminder of the ferocious determination of pathologically minded Nazi leaders to completely exterminate the European Jewish community as well as their vast pogroms against Slavic peoples, Russians, the Polish nation and any one weak or ill or old and unfit for work in the nations conquered by soldiers fo the third reich.  Although this section has been criticised for treating the holocaust as a general statement of the evil deeply inherent in humanity and playing down antisemitism by Christians, as well as implying that Southern American slavery was relatively not such a bad thing at all.,   it nevertheless provides a horrific reminder of the horror and genocide of the death camps of Auschwitz and Birkenau.

Sophie’s choice was to decide which of her children was to be murdered immediately on arrival at Auschwitz. Styron admits that this section is autobiographical of his time in Brooklyn when he met a holocaust survivor. This is a horrifying scene, magnified with exceptional emotional power by Meryl Streep in the film version.

Fourthly Styron provides us with a running commentary throughout the novel of the style and importance of a vast array of C19th and C20th American and European writers and poets and their characteristics and strengths. This preoccupation with styles of writing quickly begins to feel like a manual of how to write the great American novel. Many of the writers he mentions are little known today and it is difficult to avoid the impression that Styron is showing off his grasp of the last two centuries of American and European literature.

Putting all these components together results in an uneasy mix in my view. The reader needs a strong sense of determination to see this novel through. Having said this, once read, there are many shattering and frightening and powerful images which will remain in the reader’s consciousness for a long time indeed. 3 stars.

Lord Michele de Montaigne, Knight,  The Essayes or Moral, Politike and Militarie Dicourses: The Third Book, h/b, Folio, London,  2006 (1588).


The third and final book of  Lord Montaigne, C16th  French Knight, “one of the gentlemen In Ordinary of the French King Henry”, philosopher and arguably the world’s first essayist, was written eight years after his  first two books and written at a time when Montaigne seems very aware of his increasing age…it seemeth, custom alloweth old age more liberty to babbel,and indiscretion to talke of its selfe.  The essays in this book are much longer than those in Books 1 and 2 with the exception of An Apologie of Raymond Sebonde in Book 2 which is very long indeed. Nevertheless the contents of the thirteen essays still stray well beyond their the topics of their titles. It seems possible to detect a deeper sense of self-analysis in this last book and a degree of defensiveness about the way Montaigne conducted his public life prior to retiring to his private estate to read and write.

The topics are as varied and vibrant as the first two books with perhaps fewer military chapters and towards the end, fewer quotations from Greek and Latin ancient philosophers and writers. There are chapters on profit and honesty, repenting, commerces or societies which includes interesting comments on poetry and books and  diversions in conversation.  An amazing fifth chapter entitled Upon Some Verses in Virgil, begins with a lively interaction with early Greek and Roman philosophers but eventually leads to an outrageous and lengthy discussion of sexuality which is frequently R-rated and would certainly outrage C20th feminists although more likely to be  appreciated by the morality of the C21st.  This highlight is followed by discussions about coaches, greatness, conferring and conferences, vanity, the writing of wills, and of the lame or cripple, of human character, nature and appearance.

 The final chapter, entitled “Of Experience”  is the most personal and private one of all which includes  diatribes against several professions including lawyers, doctors, against having too many books! against judges, against having an oversupply of  laws, against ignorance and lack of curiosity, against self-conceit, and in favour of learning, goodwill and boldness. There are  excruciating details of Montaigne’s habits, health, diet, toilet habits, illnesses, and an analysis of positive and negative attitudes to death.  Bloom, who rates Montaigne at the highest level in his Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds, (2002) writes about this chapter: I cannot think of another essay, in the tradition that reaches from Montaigne to Freud, that so profoundly searches out the metaphysics of self, and that so persuasively urges us to accept necessity. (0.45)

Throughout the whole of Book 3   Montaigne’s hero and mentor is Socrates with Plato a poor second who suffers by comparison with Socrates whom Montaigne calls “the wisest man that ever was”.

I found it a huge challenge to read the three quite large books which make up Montaigne’s Essays especially in the 1603 English translation of John Florio which is effectively Shakespearian English. On the other hand there is impressive wisdom and insight in Montaigne which I am glad I have been able to ponder. I think he deserves his place in the higher echelons of Bloom’s list of 100 geniuses although the extraordinary length and minute detail of Montaigne’s self-analysis of his own character I think we could have had less of. 

Regarding the wisdom and clear thinking of Montaigne I attach some examples below:

p13: When an urgent circumstance, or any violent and unexpected accident, induceth a Prince for the necessitie of his estate, or as they say for state matters, to breake his worde and faith, or otherwise to forceth him out of his ordinary duty, he is to ascribe that necessity unto a lash of God’s rod: It is no vice, for hee hath quit his reason, unto a reason more publike, and more powerfull,but surely ’tis ill fortune….We cannot doe every thing, nor bee in every place. When all is done, thus and thus, must wee often, as unto our lat Anker and sole refuge, resigne the protection of our vessell unto the onely conduct of heaven.  [i.e.  in the end God rules!]

p.19:  To write books without learning, is it not to make a wall without stone or such like thing

p.22:   That is an exquisite life, which even in his owne private keepeth it selfe in awe and order. 

p.27:  On repentance: Surely there can be no perfect health; where the disease is not perfectly removed. Were repentance put in the scale of ballance, it would weigh downe sinne.  I finde no humour so easie to counterfeited as Devotion: If one conforme not his life and conditions to it, her essence is abstruse and concealed, her appearance gentle and stately…repentance doth not properly concern what is not in our power; sorrow doth. 

p.37:  Montaigne is no great  fan of poetry but prefers it to those medling with Rhetoricke, with Law, and with Logicke, and such like trash, so vaine and unprofitable for their use….Poesie is a study fit for their purpose: being a wanton, ammusing, subtill, disguised, and pratling Arte; all in delight, all in shew, like to themselves.

p39:  The company of faire, and society of honest women is likewise a sweet commerce for me. 

p.42: On books: I enjoy them, as a miser does his gold; to know, that I may enjoy them when I list; my minde is settled and satisfied with the right of possession.  I never travel without bookes, nor in peace nor in warre.. and p. 44: Bookes have and containe divers pleasing qualities to those that can duly choose them. But no good without paines; no Roses without prickles.

p44.  On wealth:  A great fortune is a great bondage (Seneca)….

p. 48. On death: It belongeth to one only, Socrates, to accost and entertaine death with an undaunted ordinary visage, to become familiar and play with it. He seekers for no comfort out of the thing itselfe. To die seemeth unto him a naturall and indifferent accident…and p. 50, quoting Zeno: No evil is honourable; death is; therefore death is no evil. 

p.60:  On old age: Seeing it is the mindes priviledge to renew and recover itself in old age, I earnestly advise it to do it.

p.62.   On confession: Every one is wary in the confession; we should be as heedy in action….Why doth no man confesse his faults? Because hee is yet in them.  [Seneca]

p.65 On sex:   Goddesse, thou rule’s the nature of all things,

Without thee nothing into this light springs

Nothing is lovely, nothing pleasure brings.       [Lucretius}

p139:  Montaigne writes at length in chapter 6 against the damage done by Western hegemony to the colonised world…amazingly C21st imagery and foresight writing in the C15th.

p. 233:   We are so farre enough from being honest according to God: For, wee cannot be such according to our selves. Humane wisedome could never reach the duties, or attaine the devoires it had prescribed unto it selfe….I am so distasted and out of liking with the world, wherein I live and frequent: but well I know, I should have small reason to complaine, the world were distasting and out of liking with me, since I am so with it.

p.234:  Plato saith, that “who escapes untainted and cleaner-handed from managing of the world; escapeth by some wonder.

p250:  He that lives not somewhat to others, liveth little to himselfe.. He that is friend to himself, know, he is friend to all.  [Seneca]

p255:  The more we amplifie our neede and possession, the more we engage our selves to the crosses of fortune and adversities. 

p.258:  We must not run headlong after our affections and private interests.

p.278  a man were better bend towards doubt, than encline towards certaintie, in matter of difficult triall and dangerous belief.  [Augustine]

p. 284: On learning: We neede not much learning to live at ease. And Socrates teacheth us, that we have both it, and the way to finde and make use of it, within us….We have neede of little learning to have a good minde [Seneca]

p. 290:  There can be no worse estate of things  be imagined, than where wickednesse commeth to be lawfull…there is nothing more deceiptfull to shew, than corrupt religion, when the power of Heaven is made a pretence and cloake for wickednesse. 

p293  Hee is of most power, that himself in his owne power. [Seneca]

p. 299: Philosophy teacheth us, ever to have death before our eyes, to fore-see and consider it before it come.  If we have not known how to live, it is injustice to teach us how to die.

p304  on himself:  …here I have but gathered a nosegay of strange floures, and have put nothing of mine unto it, but the thred to bind them…p323: ..I study myself more than any other subject..

p367:  The glorious masterpiece of man, is, to live to the purpose.

p.371: on life: A fooles life is all pleasant, all fearfull, all fond of future [Seneca] …according as the the possession of life is more short, I must endevour to make it more profound and full. 

p. 376  Montaigne’s final word: The best and most commendable lives, and pleasing men are (in my conceit) those which with order are fitted, and with decorum are ranged to the common mould and humane model: but without wonder or extravagancy. Now hath old age need to be handled more tenderly. Let us recommend it unto that God, who is the protector of health, and fountaine of all wisedome: but blithe and social. Montaigne closes with a quote from Horace, Ode. 31:17

Apollo graunt, enjoy health I may

That I have got, and with sound minde, I pray:

Nor that I may with shame spend my old yeares,

Nor wanting musicke to delight mine eares.