David Talbot Rice: Art of the Byzantine Era, p/b, London, Thames & Hudson, 1963
The study of Byzantine art and culture in situ is a demanding one requiring research in remote areas of the south Balkans, modern Constantinople (Istanbul) in Turkey, Trebizon and especially the rock churches of ancient Cappodocia and Cicilia, the Peloponese peninsula in Southern Greece, the monastic communities in the mountains of northern Greece, Egypt, Ravenna, the tufa monuments and churches of ancient Armenia and Georgia and the ancient churches of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and the beautiful remaining Byzantine churches and monuments at Cefalu, Monreale and Palermo in Sicily.
David Talbot Rice was educated at Rugby, a friend of Evelyn Waugh, Harold Acton and other members of the “bright young things” who were later to be “found” in Brideshead Revisited. He was also an outstanding archaeologist and art critic, a founding lecturer of the Courtauld Institute in London and Professor of Fine Art at Edinburgh University for many years. He has published widely in the areas of Western and Eastern art contributed numerous articles to specialised journals.
This book covers largely the period from the reign of Justinian 1 (527-565) to the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The task of locating the stunning artwork of the Byzantine era was made much harder by the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusaders when much of the artistic glory of the capital was carted off to Venice, Spain, museums and places unknown. In addition many of the magnificently crafted Byzantine churches were converted into mosques under Islamic rule at various stages and many other fine churches were destroyed in wars of various periods. The standard procedure in converting churches to mosques was to cover up Christian artwork with white plaster. Repair and removal of the plaster, when possible, was difficult and resulted in much chipping of the original work. Nevertheless much remains to be seen and studied today and this book contains 247 photographic plates, many in full colour.
The result is an exciting journey through 1200 years of Christian artwork portraying the Christian story in powerful and moving images of exceptional sophistication. The awesome figure of Christ the almighty staring down from beneath the vast dome of the Hagia Sophia of the cathedral in Cefalu Sicily is haunting and powerful, never to be forgotten. Equally entrancing are the personalities from the Christian story found in the midst of quite formal Byzantine artworks. These portray deep faith and an understanding of events happening to real people even in such a stylized art form. I found this accessible book deeply moving and spiritually encouraging. It is a Christian story that has been neglected. 5 stars.
Wayne Meeks: The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul, p/b, New Haven/London, Yale University Press, 1983.
C S Lewis wrote that for every new book you read, you should read two old ones. Meeks’ book is now 39 years old but he fact that it is still in print demonstrates the value and strength of his sociological and historical analysis of the “first urban Christians”. From Jesus’ original rural Galilean disciples and their converts, the Christian faith exploded mightily in the Roman towns and cities of Asia Minor. This explosion was largely due to the exploits, energy, argument and spiritual power of the Apostle Paul, converted by Jesus himself in a vision on the Emmaus Rd to Damascus, filled with a Jewish fire to destroy Christians!
Meeks has assembled a vast array of sociological tools to analyse how this amazing new religion flourished in the midst of and under the nose of the massive power of the Roman empire. Armed with a bibliography of well over 700 volumes of secondary research, the indefatigable Meeks has opened up for his readers, with exceptional care, science, Biblical analysis and historical data of all sorts, the world of First Century urban (Pauline) Christians. With impressive and not boring clarity (unusual in most sociological works I have studied!), Meeks uncovers topics such as :
The urban environment in which Paul and his fellow workers evangelised;
The social level of the earliest Christian converts…wealth, security, employment etc;
The formation of Christian “ekklesia” compared with equivalent Roman voluntary associations, philosophical and rhetorical schools and the Jewish synagogues;
The peculiar language of “belonging” in the early churches eg the elect, called to be saints, loved and known by God, beloved, children of God, adopted, believers, those ‘in Christ’, a family, brothers and sisters, brotherly affection.
Issues of Governance in the early urban churches…dealing with conflict, letters and visits, the confusion in Corinth including leadership challenges, relationships with fellow workers and warrants for authority.
Rituals and how they developed especially baptism and The Lord’s Supper
Patterns of belief including the notion of “One God, One Lord, One Body; the place of apocalyptic and managing innovation; the reality of the crucified Messiah and the notion of resurrection; the question of evil and its reversal.
Meeks concludes his work with a brief summary of correlations…the early Pauline Christians believed in one God, creator of the universe and ultimate judge of all human actions, attributing titles and functions to the crucified and resurrected Messiah Jesus titles and functions that in the Jewish tradition were attributed only to God. This one God of the Christians is personal and active, demanding a high level of commitment. The Pauline view is eschatological leading to the final judgement of both humans and cosmic powers. Pauline Christians believe in Jesus the Messiah, son of God, crucified but raised from the dead, and exalted to reign with God in heaven. These believers from all strata and status in Roman society met regularly together maintaining their rituals of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, stressing symbols of unity, equality and love.
Reading this book gave me a strong sense of the purpose and clarity of meaning of Paul’s Epistles in the New Testament. It is a remarkable achievement well deserving of its continuing reprints. 5 stars
Thomas Mann: Death in Venice, Trans. H.T. Lowe-Porter, Ringwood, Penguin/Martin Secker & Warburg, 1985 (1912)
German novelist and Nobel Prizewinner for his book The Magic Mountain, wrote this short novel in 1912. The key character, Gustave von Aschenbach, highly regarded and serious author breaks his normal holiday routine and travels to Venice for the summer instead of his usual mountain retreat. He is nearing the end of his career and not in strong health. In the dining room of his hotel on his first night he is stunned by the natural beauty and bearing of a young German boy, also holidaying in Venice with his mother, governess and four sisters. Gustave becomes obsessed with this boy to the eventually of manically following him around Venice
Gustave never speaks to the boy Tadzio but the lad is aware of his interest and does not discourage him. At the same time in the heat of the sirocco scorching summer wind, cholera grips the city and the vast majority of tourists leave Venice. Denying reason, Gustave’s passion keeps him in Venice and his illness and intense passion lead to his death. The short novel is gripping in its intensity of description not just of his passion for Tadzio but also the lavish description of the best and the worst of early C20th Venice.
Thomas Mann himself, although happily married with five impressive children, was on his own admission deeply attracted to beautiful young men. A significant feature is the way Mann describes the passion of Gustave through the ancient antics of the Greek gods and goddesses. The novelette builds to a very dramatic conclusion and is impossible not to finish. 4 stars.
Paul McHugh, The Mind Has Mountains: Reflections on Society and Psychiatry, h/b, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006
Paul McHugh is an outstanding American psychiatrist of the C20th and early C21st. Now in the nineties he was for many years the Director of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and later the Henry Phipps Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus.
Mc Hugh was a spirited defender of a psychiatric methodology based on epidemiology, genetics and neuro-pharmacology as against the C20th explosion of nonmedical, fashionable and over simplified ideas about psychiatry and mental illnesses promoted by the so-called antipsychiatrists (p.4) including Thomas Szasz, R.D. Laing, Erving Goffmann and Michel Foucalt amongst others. A measure of the explosion of under researched and purely theoretical psychiatric disorders can be traced by the growth of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the official tome of the American Psychiatric Association. What began in 1968 as a psychiatric disease identification of 119 pages became an explosion of 886 pages in the latest edition. Many of these identifications based on descriptive appearance of individual cases have little basis in medical evidence and some are purely the inventions of their proponents. (p.51) One dangerous motivation for this sudden explosion of new ailments is the extravagant retainers from pharmaceutical companies plugging their medications and the healthy returns from some insurance companies!
McHugh’s book is a series of essays based on a wide range of topics including the demise of early C20th Freudian ideas (including the Oedipal complex, castration anxiety, and penis envy); the important work of Dr. Jerome Frank in helping patients master problems in their present life rather than searching for problems in early life conflicts; misunderstandings about the nature of depression; the imprisonment of Dr Kevorkian for murder; the development of overvalued ideas in society (someone who has taken up an idea shared by others in his or her milieu or culture and transformed it into a ruling passion or “monomania”); the importance of the work of Karl Jaspers in opposing Freudian nihilism and his fight against eugenics, fascism and racism in medicine; the scandal of “repressed memories”; the over-reach and oversimplification of PSTD cases for a false motivation; Multiple Personality Disorder as a socially constructed artifact; the cultic character of psycho-analysis and its continuation until “the money runs out”; the de-institutionalisaton of the severely mentally ill; the failures of contemporary bioethics and its rush to become a culture of death; William Osler’s contribution to modern medicine; Shakespeare and psychiatry; the development of the distinction between sex and gender and the accompanying explosion and under determined value of sex-change surgery; the ethical use of embyronic cells and psychiatric insights into terrorism.
Not all will agree with every idea in McHugh’s analysis of a better path for psychiatry. On the other hand McHugh’s logic, common sense, clinical expertise and scientific sophistication based on factual cases will provide significant food for thought for anyone interested in mental health issues and the best way forward in dealing with them successfully. Five stars.
James Joyce, The Dubliners, [The corrected text with an Explanatory Note by Robert Scholes and Photography by Dr. J. J. Clarke of the period between 1897 and 1904], h/b, London, Folio, 2003 (1914)
A collection of fourteen short cameos and one extended narrative of the lives of ordinary Dubliners published in 1914.
The first three are written in the first person and tell of (i) the death of a somewhat tiresome old man whose life and story had made a deep impact on a young boy. (ii) Two boys wagging school and being approached by a perverted old man (iii) a boy’s love for a girl in his street and his unsuccessful attempt to buy her a present at the market.
The other eleven stories are written in the third person and describe:
– a young woman torn between her love for family and town and a romance with a wandering sailor who wished to marry her.
– four well healed young men with a fast car and their escapades around town.
– a young man in a boarding house who gets the landlady’s daughter pregnant and is challenged by the mother as to his intentions.
` – a young man somewhat bored with his ordinary life catches up with an old friend who is single and has had good success in London as a journalist and is living the high life.
– a married man with children is in trouble at work and soothes his mind by pawning his watch and getting drunk with the boys. Coming home in a bad way, his wife is at church and his tea is cold; he pays out on the children.
– a busy single matron takes her day off and goes to visit her married brother and his family. – a lonely unmarried business man takes up a friendship with a married woman who is unhappy in her marriage. When she wishes to go further he retreats and the woman turns to drink.
– a group of political committee members get together for a drink after a hard day’s campaigning.
– a woman with a talented daughter is upset when her daughter is not paid appropriately for a series of concerts.
– a group of faithful church goers try to rehabilitate a drunkard and try to sort out their religious differences in the process.
The final somewhat longer narrative is entitled The Dead and describes a sumptuous annual dance and dinner but on my the Misses Morkans which they have hosted for over thirty years. The narrative focuses down on the thought processes of the regular speech maker, a deep thinking literary and caring man who sees their quiet world changing, key people dying and begins to ponder his own life and coming death. The narrative turns from trivial description of a host of characters to a powerful and deep private meditation.
Joyce had trouble publishing this work due to the strict moral standards of 1914 Britain. A number of these characters reappear in his amazing Ulysses, the story of one day in the life of Dublin. The Dubliners makes for thoughtful and entertaining reading. 5 stars.
Colm Tóibín: The Magician: p/b, Sydney, Picador/Pan Macmillan, 2021
Exceptional biography of distinguished C20th German writer Thomas Mann (wrote Magic Mountain/Death in Venice/Tristan/ Tonio Kröger/Doctor Faustus) amongst other novels. Tóibín is an exceptional Irish writer who has also written biographies of Henry James and Mary the mother of Jesus along with The Master and Brooklyn.
This is a deeply researched novel written in a fictionalised style by Tóibín which takes the reader deeply into Thomas Mann’s innermost thoughts as well as describing intimate family and other conversations in precise detail. The reader is guaranteed a reasonable sense of Tóibín’s accuracy by the list of over fifty major works of analyses of Mann’s life during the rise and fall of Hitler and the rise of Stalin on p. 435 of this work. Married into the wealthy Jewish Pringsheim family Thomas and his impressive wife Katia had six children whose upbringing was largely Katia’s responsibility as Mann spent pretty well every morning of his life in his study writing and thinking. His brother Heinrich was also a writer but much more to the left and their fraught relationship was a major tension in his life.
Thomas Mann felt strongly about the need for a restored Germany after the Great War and was very late to recognise the vast danger of German fascism. Equally he was so involved in the creation of his novel Magic Mountain (for which he won the Nobel prize), that he was caught unawares by the rapid rise of the Third Reich and in the end had to leave behind his house in Munich and flee to Switzerland, then southern France, finally becoming a citizen of the USA. His first son Klaus and first daughter Erika played significant roles in the fight against Nazism and his at times strained relationship with them is a key component of his story. Mann was also completely blind to the horror of the Nazi genocidal program and the magnitude of this racial destruction had to be spelt out to him while he was living comfortably in the USA and when it was far too late for him to use his considerable wealth and contacts to help Jewish refugees.
Alongside his writing, his wife, his six child family and his fame Mann did not hide his erotic interest in beautiful young men and Tóbín delicately describes Katia’s negotiation of these two sides of Mann’s nature carefully and elegantly.
Ironically Mann, who was a European heroic ally for talking up the need for America to join the war against Hitler, became himself an enemy of the American people after the war due to his equivocal approach to the rise of Stalin and the division of Germany. He and his family were effectively encouraged to leave the USA and returned to
Europe spending their final years in Switzerland.
This beautifully written biographical novel is an absolute masterpiece. 5 stars and rising.
Bev Aisbett: Panic Attacks: A Survivor’s Guide to Panic Attacks, p/b, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, 1996
Bev Aisbett has written a very helpful introduction and overview to coping with and living with panic attacks, a phenomenon that makes simply living a misery for a vast number of sufferers around the world. Supported by Dr D Jeffries, Aisbett uses a helpful descriptive approach using clever line drawings and diagrams. Aisbett does not simplify or minimise the difficulty of dealing with panic attacks and underlines that professional help and often supportive medication is essential for full recovery.
A strength of this book is a chapter on those living with sufferers of panic attacks. This chapter underlines the dangers of well-meaning advice such as “get over it” or “you look all right to me or simply feelings of frustration, helplessness, or even anger.
This is a positive and helpful book that will surprise and assist both sufferers and helpers. 5 stars.
Andrew Graham-Dixon: Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane, p/b, Camberwell, Penguin, 2011
Late C16th/early C17th artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was quite late earning respect in the crowded art world of the C20th. A remarkable rehabilitation was achieved in 1951 with an extremely influential retrospective organised by the significant Italian art historian Roberto Longhi. In some respects Graham-Dixon notes, Caravaggio had to wait for fame for C20th film makers like Pasolini and Scorsese to understand his startling vision of ordinary people in paintings. Especially in his religious paintings Caravaggio scandalized his Italian peers by using street people, whores and the poorest of the poor to as his models for some of the most momentous paintings of Biblical history. In addition his use of black backgrounds with only one source of light highlighting just the central action, with no fluffy and irrelevant landscape behind in the painting was ground-breaking and radically altered painting styles from the C17th onwards.
Caravaggio’s life is breath-taking, scary, bitter-sweet, sad and enormously vibrant all at once. Although in Milan he was theoretically apprenticed to an artist to learn to paint, Caravaggio was effectively self-taught with a skill that at times seems miraculous and methodology unique in his age. Coming from relative poverty Caravaggio had to rely on wealthy supporters who had the contacts to gain him important commissions especially once he moved to Rome where churches like St Mary Maggiore hold some of his most famous paintings.
But Caravaggio also had a quite separate life at night on the streets and in the bars and places of ill repute in Rome. Here his quick temper, pride and sense of his own right to be accepted resulted in many street battles with opponents equally talented with the sword and with dangerous friends. The inevitable occurred and Caravaggio had to flee Rome after the death of an opponent in a street fight. His life then became one long attempt to restore his honour at the same time as escaping from would be enemies seeking revenge. Life on the run included a rural estate well away from Rome, Naples, Malta, Sicily and eventually an ill-fated attempt to return to Rome from Naples. All this time Caravaggio continued to produce some of the most significant paintings in the whole of art history.
So many myths have gathered around Caravaggio from the three C17th biographers Mancini, Baglioni and Bellori through to the ever-increasing array of modern writers who can see a best-selling story in this relatively brief but extraordinary life. Graham-Dixon freely acknowledges his debts to writers ancient and modern but has the advantage of some recent careful research which for the first time has thrown light on the complex and until now hidden story of his life on the run.
This account is lavishly illustrated with all of Caravaggio’s major works and other folk of interest in his life. I found the book impossible to put down and feel a deep pang of sympathy and regret that a painter of such explosive talent should have his life cut down when who knows what else he could have produced. 5 stars and rising.
Max Gawn, Max Gawn Captain’s Diary, with Konrad Marshall, p/b, Richmond, Hardie Grant Books, 2021
This is a book that could only be enjoyed by long-suffering supporters of the Melbourne Australian Rules Football club who have been waiting 57 years for another Melbourne Demons Premiership Cup.
Max Gawn is an experienced and effective media personality who has many fans including from other clubs through his wise, accessible and thoughtful commentary on football and life in general. This book includes a game by game analysis of the 2021 season which was remarkable for the complexity of match times and places forced upon the AFL by the nation wide impact of COVID 19.
Without unnecessary boring detail Gawn manages to highlight events, players, flight complexities, matches interrupted by lightning, players and and coaches interactions and the tensions mounting into the Finals series. Gawn is honest about his own doubts and challenges as Captain and the pressure of the leadership role. The book highlights the complexities of an elite professional club life with all the ups and downs, the need for teamwork combined with the drama of game selections, the injuries and the talented players who miss out in a team studded with outstanding players at the peak of their careers.
As a supporter who was beginning to think that another premiership would not happen in his lifetime, you can imagine that I devoured this book in record time! 4 stars.
William Gaunt, The Pre-Raphaelite Tragedy, h/b, London, Folio Society, 2017
C20th artist and art historian William Gaunt has produced an exceptionally thorough analysis of the C19th Pre-Raphaelite art movement. The movement commenced as an alternative to the Royal Academy for outstanding artists which this group regarded as out of touch, stuffy, upper class and too wedded to the “Grand manner’ of Italian art, of Raphael and the C16th and C17th.
The original seven members of the “Brotherhood” were William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rosetti, his brother William Michael Rosetti, James Collinson, Frederick George Stephens and Thomas Woolner. Their ideal female model was a beautiful young girl of eighteen, Lizzie Siddal whom Rosetti eventually married. Friends and unofficial associates of the brotherhood were Ford Madox Brown, Walter Deverell, Arthur Hughes and Charles Alston Collins.
The ideals and ideas to which they were dedicated were complex and varied but centred on the Romantic Spirit of the past and a focus on unsophisticated nature. Gaunt notes it was linked with Romantic Poetry, with the Arthurian legend, with the Gothic and religious Revival, with the reactions against the Industrial Revolution; with Wordsworth, Keats and Shelley, Pugin and Pusey, the anti-Victorian thinkers Ruskin and Carlyle, though with the Italian masters of the later Middle Ages, who provided its name, it had very little to do. They were all lacking resources except Rosetti and were living on the edge.
The Fellowship fell apart almost as soon as it was created. Hunt had a passion for the East and for Jerusalem and conversion of the masses to the Christian faith through art. He spent most of his time in Jerusalem. Woolner sailed off to Australia to join the gold rush. Mlllais dabbled with the Pre-Raphaelite spirit but quickly returned to where the safe money was and after several stops and starts became Britain’s favourite artist of the late C19th and eventually the President of the Royal Academy just prior to his death. Italian/British Rosetti was quixotic, dominating and outlandish, with new passions constantly forming and his outrageous life style was too much for some.
The second revival of the “Brotherhood” was sparked by the complex and wealthy Oxford art critic and polymath John Ruskin who poured money and influence into the group and brought others in. Key figures in the second Pre-Raphaelite phase were Dante Gabriel Rosetti, Edward Burne-Jones, William Morris and Ford Madox Brown. All of these remarkably able and talented artists and craftsmen were to have a vast and lasting influence on the English Anglican Gothic Revival, on design craftmanship and furniture making, on philosophy for the common man and freedom in art.
The complex and ever-changing history of this group is elegantly told by Gaunt and becomes a picture of changing Britain in the second half of the C19th and the early C20th. Undoubtedly the key figures are Rosetti and William Morris whose beautiful wife Jane maintained a ménage à trois with Rosetti for two years in their joint home at Kelmscott, but Gaunt also manages to keep us informed of the activities of Hunt, Millais, Burn-Jones and many other acolytes.
Having spent considerable time in the UK tracking down Pre-Raphaelite paintings, Morris’s Red House in Kent and the little church and eccentric house and burial place of William and Jane Morris at Kelmscott, I could not put this book down. The Folio edition is of course beautifully illustrated with many lavish full page coloured productions of relevant works of art. Five stars.
Carl Trueman: The Rise and Triumph of the Modern Self: Cultural Amnesia, Expressive Individualism and the Road to Sexual Revolution, Foreword, Rod Dreher, h/b, Wheaton, Crossway, 2020 (425pp.)
This is a demanding and challenging read covering some of the same ground as Charles Taylor, A Secular Age and Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Trueman’s title uses the term expressive individualism and by this term Trueman means how we in the “West” have come to identify ourselves. He is referring to the chaos of identity politics (p25);and makes the point that ‘we are all expressive individuals now.’ Just as some choose to identify themselves by their sexual orientation, so the religious person chooses to be a Christian or a Muslim.. (or some other faith or orientation).
Trueman describes the key ‘move’ of the modern self as, ‘…a prioritization of the individual’s inner psychology – we might even say ‘feelings’ or ‘intuitions’ – for our sense of who we are and what the purpose of our lives is.’(p. 23)
As we attempt to stay afloat in our cultural soup – potently seasoned with more than a pinch of ‘cultural amnesia,’ ladled with large dollops of ‘expressive Individualism’; and crowned with powerful aromas which have been infused by the ‘sexual revolution’ (so-called) – Trueman argues that each one of us is confronted with a question of vital philosophical, theological; and therefore ethical urgency: ‘Is happiness found in directing oneself outward or inward?…The answer I give speaks eloquently of what I consider the purpose of life and the meaning of happiness. In sum it is indicative of how I think of my self.’ (p.23)
Regarding the ‘revolution’; and in anticipation of his far-reaching historical survey; Trueman adds:
‘ The sexual revolution did not cause the sexual revolution, nor did technology such as the pill or the internet. Those things may have facilitated it, but its causes lie much deeper, in the changes in what it meant to be an authentic, fulfilled human self. And those changes stretch back well before the Swinging Sixties.’(p.23)
Outline in brief
The format of the book consists firstly of a historical account of how such a cultural revolution has occurred in the West using in particular the rather arcane writings of Philip Rieff and the more accessible work of Charles Taylor and Alasdair MacIntyre. In the simplest terms he suggests that Western civilization has advanced in four stages from practical man, through to religious man, economic man and into our current stage, psychological man (or, consumer/plastic man who can make or remake her personality at will.)
Trueman begins with three ruling ideas:
The vast and unstoppable advance of technological invention.
There is no golden age that was better than the present so stop pining for the past.
When critiquing opponents, give their argument full weight. There is no value in refuting a straw man.
Following chapters on reimagining the Self and reimagining our culture, Trueman moves to a more detailed analysis of the key historical players in this story of the progession to psychological man. These helpful chapters adumbrate the major impact made by, in order, Jean-Jaques Rousseau; The Romantic poets especially Wordsworth, Shelley and Blake; Nietsche, Marx and Darwin; Sigmund Freud and finally The New Left and the Politicization ofSex with a nod to Foucault and his epigones and incomprehensible imitators. There are further chapters on The triumph of the Erotic, The triumph of the Therapeutic and The triumph of the T (Trans). The book finishes with a Concluding Unscientific Prologue with some suggestions for a way forward for Christian believers.
This book creates an understandable pathway through the current labyrinth of our dominant Western culture. It is well worth the effort (5 stars)
Some key questions discussed in this book include (p.102): How is the self to be understood; how ethical discourse operates; how tradition and history are valued; and how cultural elites understand the culture and purpose of art.
Key terminology to be mastered when reading the book includes:
The social imaginary…the way people think about the world enabling a widely shared sense of legitimacy.
‘Deathworks’(Rieff) …an all out assault on something vital to the established culture. (cf Freud: culture is constituted by those things that it forbids). A deathwork, by contrast, represents an attack on established cultural art forms in a manner designed to undo the deeper moral structure of society.
Mimesis …having a given meaning
Poiesis ….meaning is constructed by the individual
Emotivism: to say that something is good is in reality merely to express a personal emotive preference…this leads to moral relativism. (McIntyre), p121. (Emotivism proves that the other side is wrong). The agreed rational basis for debate is gone. All that is left is emotional preference. (p377)
Sittlichkeit: The moral obligations I have to be a member of an ongoing community of which I am a part. (p62)
Key ideas of Trueman’s work include:
* Why is it important that identity be publicly acknowledged?
* The importance and nature of the self.
* Pejorative racial or sexual epithets are not a trivial matter. (p55)
* The fact that identity recognition has moved from tolerance to equality (mere toleration would cause psychological harm). (p54)
* The power of elites in Western politics. (p54 fn)
* Satisfaction, meaning and authenticity are now found by an inward turn, and the culture must be reconfigured to this end….I must not tailor my psychological needs to the nature of society, for that would create anxiety and make me inauthentic. Traditional moral terms are now seen to be part of the problem and become deemed as hate speech. (p54)
the emergence of chronological snobbery (p88)
* There is no universal criterion by which competing moral claims can be compared or assessed. (p161)
* The legalisation of the right to define one’s own concept of existence, of meaning, of the universe, of human life. (p.303)
* The assumption that the basic categories of modern identity politics are undeniable (p332)
The deliberate destruction and erasure of the past, not only its artifacts but also its practices producing cultural amnesia. (p337)
* The technical ability to manipulate biological realities (p35)
* Woke capitalism…the economic significance of pornography sits at least at $6 billion annually for the US economy. (p271)
* Enlightenment individualism has ceased to be a tool of human emancipation and is displaying increasingly oppressive aspects. (p274)
The goal of critical theory is to destabilize the dominant Western narrative of truth (p226) (eg.post-structuralism, post colonialism, critical race theory, the sexualisation of children, the politicising of sex.(p267).
*The expressive individual is now the sexually expressive individual. (p268)
* The assumption that thebasic categories of modern identity politics are undeniable (p330)
* For campus protestors, free speech is simply a licence to oppress others with hateful language and arguments. (p337)
* The teaching of history is now dominated universities by advocates of critical theory and thus preoccupied with categories of power and marginalisation. (p332)
* Increasing government encroachment on the private sphere, both of the family and of the mind. (P.239)
The notion that political freedom is sexual freedom and that shattering sexual norms is a vital part of transforming society are now intuitive cultural orthodoxies. (p249f)
Martin Boyd: The Cardboard Crown, Intro: Dorothy Green, [Part 1 of the Langton Quartet],
p/b, Ringwood, Penguin, 1984 (1952)
Novelist Martin Boyd was a member of an early and distinguished Anglo-Australian family of artists, potters, musicians and architects and on his mother’s side, a long line of judges, barristers and Victoria’s first Chief Justice. He was born as a British citizen in Switzerland but at six months old was brought to Australia where he grew up and was educated at Trinity Grammar School in Kew Melbourne. He fought in the trenches in World War 1 as part of the British army and later served as a pilot with the Royal Flying Corps at a time when the British were losing fifty pilots in training a day. His disillusionment with the horrors of war lead him to be a ferocious critic in books and letters of political leaders including Lloyd George, Baldwin and Churchill as well as newspaper tycoons and archbishops. After the war he returned to Australia and lived for many years in Harkaway, near Berwick in south east Melbourne. He spent the last thirty years of his life in Europe and died in Rome, aged 72.
The Langton Quartet of novels is loosely based on the Boyd extended family history and told with whimsical humour, elegant aesthetics and fascinating glimpses of early Australian society especially in the pre-Gold rush era although these stories are not to be understood as literal truth in every detail. The ‘cardboard crown’ was a much fought over toy played with and highly valued by the extended family children and the narrative aptly describes the varying fortunes of the wearer of the crown, Hetty, in the narrative. The key figures in The Cardboard Crown are his grandmother Alice and grandfather Austin, loosely based on William Callander à Beckett, a barrister and member of The Legislative Council, an able and energetic man with some eccentricities and his wife Emma Mills, a very beautiful and accomplished woman who brought great wealth into the family.
The novel describes with sensitivity and humour the travails, adventures and passions of this couple as they peregrinated between England and Australia and their fortunes rose and fell with the foundation of the new colony. The description of early Victorian expansion away from Melbourne is fascinating and the contrast with Boyd’s treatment of Alice’s aesthetic awakening in Paris, Rome, Florence and southern France is captivating aided by the frisson of romance. I thoroughly enjoyed this novel although piecing together the various family members was demanding. I now have a thirst to find the other three stories in the Langton Quartet. 5 stars.
Beowulf, Edited, Translated, Introduction and Notes, Michael Swanton, p/b, Manchester & New York, Manchester University Press, 1994 (1978)
Eighth century Anglo-Saxon poem concerning the feats of the Geatish champion Beowulf, otherwise unknown to history, who came to the aid of the ageing King of the Geats, Hrothgar whose dwelling was the hall of Heorot during the last decades of the fifth century. The kingdom of the Geats lay in the south of modern Sweden, just north of the Jutes, Angles and Danes that occupied what is now northern Denmark. The sole surviving text of Beowulf is found in a late C10th manuscript of the British Library. It was part of the collection of Sir Robert Cotton and the manuscript is part of a composite volume containing an additional three short prose works. Michael Swanton is Emeritus Professor in Medieval Studies at the University of Exeter.
Although there are clearly fantastic themes and images in this poem, many of the persons named are known to history through other sources. Beowulf and his group of mighty thanes came by boat to aid the ageing Hrothgar, king of the Geats. Hrothgar was in despair as his kingdom was being literally devoured by a powerful demon monster named Grendel, a notorious prowler of the borderlands, who held the the wastelands, swamp and fastness. (line 95, p.39). This creature came at night and devoured at will the sleeping men of the hall of Heorot. Beowulf won a major victory by defeating Grendel in mortal combat.
Beowulf followed this up with the further destruction of Grendel’s mother, a woman, a she monster (line 1255) who dwelt in a vast and deep swamp covered in slimy water. She also came to devour the men of Heorot and she also fell to the might of Beowulf after a further powerful struggle. Beowulf was crowned king after these feats following the death of Hrothgar and ruled the Geats valiantly and successfully for fifty years until a fire-breathing dragon appeared in the neighbourhood guarding a fabulous horde of golden jewels and partial to human flesh.
Once again Beowulf strove to battle and, with the aid of just one of his men, the brave Wiglaf, they managed to survive the fiery ordeal and slay the dragon. Nevertheless Beowulf sustained a mortal wound in the contest and died beside the weeping Wiglaf who berated his cowardly cohort who were afraid to enter the battle. The poem finishes with the sorrowful burial of the mighty and beloved Beowulf.
This fine edition with excellent introduction, maps, notes and a glossary of names makes for a relatively easy read although the various side stories that slip into the narrative can be confusing even with the helps. The C8th Anglo-Saxon version sits side by side on each double page with a modern English translation so if one is keen enough a little Anglo-Saxon comes into the light with practice although I have to say it is a great deal more difficult than Chaucer’s English!
Tolkien lovers will be fascinated by many of the themes emerging from Beowulf including the importance of the bestowal of rings of power, the importance of historic swords and blades, the fearful fiends, dragons and monsters emerging from darkness as well as the commitment to Christian faith and trust in God which emerges in several places.
Reading Beowulf we step back in time to a dark world in North Western Europe which suddenly springs to life and reality through the unknown poet’s skilful hand. Even in translation the power and tension emerges and excites the imagination. This is an exceptional gift that has come down to us saved from the ravages of time and obscurity. 5 stars
John O’Donohue: Anam Cara: Spiritual Wisdom from the Celtic World, h/b, London, Bantam, 1998
John O’Donohue was an Irish Catholic priest who renounced his priesthood just two days prior to his unexpected death while he slept in January 2008. He was a multi-lingual writer who could speak and write in Celtic, English and German languages and no doubt make himself understood in several others. His doctoral thesis, written in German, was based on the philosophy of Hegel.
Anam Cara is the Celtic term for “soul friend” and his book of the same name has become a popular spiritual text for many people around the world. The books consists of reflections by the author on various significant Celtic themes including the mystery of friendship, a spirituality of the senses, the luminous nature of solitude, the value of work as a “poetics of growth”, the spirituality of ageing, and reflections on death as well as life after death.
O’Donohue includes a number of blessings in this text including some ancient Celtic blessings as well as a number of blessings of a Celtic character but written by himself. In addition to insights from Celtic spirituality O’Donohue also references quotations from a vast number of ancient and recent philosophers, musicians, poets, artists and writers too numerous to mention. They vary from Heidegger and James Joyce to Pablo Neruda, Kathlene Raine, Rodin, R S Thomas, Haydn, Nietzsche, Yeats, Paul Murray and many others.
There is much that is thought provoking in this work. It is not a book to be read in a day or two but rather a set of thoughts to be contemplated, thought through, discussed with others, and then read again. A number of discussion and spiritual growth groups have been created around the world with Anam Cara as the basic starting point. O’Donohue’s reflections on what happens after we die are very forthright and quite precise and leave the reader wondering “how does John O’Donohue know this?”
I had a mixed reaction to this book. I have read a several reflections on Celtic spirituality including Esther de Waal’s Selections from the Carmina Gadelica and Ray Simpson’s Celtic Daily LIght: A Spiritual Journey through the Year, which was a compilation of Celtic reflections on Scripture. I suppose I came to Anam Cara thinking it would be a similar experience. John O’Donohue’s writing is quite different. Although he references many Gaelic ideas and traditions his reach is far wider and as noted above he references a very broad range of theological, philosophical and spiritual ideas. Many of these are helpful, some are provocative and others are an excellent basis for meditation. This is a book to inspire but also to challenge and I suspect in some places, to disagree with. 4 stars.
Greg Sheridan: Christians: The Urgent Case for Jesus in our World, p/b, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2021
Greg Sheridan’s second book on Christianity follows up on his 2018 success with God is Good For You. Christians is a book of two quitdifferent parts. Part 1 contains a re-reading of the New Testament account of the life and activities of Jesus with a spirited defence of the historicity of the New Testament. Relying on recently published work by John Dickson, Is Jesus History? and Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eye Witnesses, along with other recent scholars, Sheridan argues a coherent and well documented defence of the historicity of the Gospel accounts of Jesus life.
This defence includes a rebuttal of the mid-C20th liberal and rather tired theological narrative regarding the late dating and general unreliability of the New Testament documents. Part 1 also contains useful and energising chapters on the life of Mary, the doctrine of angels and the life of Paul the apostle whom Sheridan describes as “Christ’s Lenin” in terms of his impact on the growth of Christianity. What immediately comes across to the reader is Sheridan’s excitement about his faith, about the Bible and about the impact of Jesus on the lives of the people he writes about.
Sheridan provides I believe a realistic case that disbelief in the story of Jesus cannot be based on historical data. The literary, archaeological and historical data is simply too strong. On the other hand Sheridan reminds readers that Christians must be clear about the limits of historical evidence. History certainly does not prove that Jesus was God and that he rose from the dead.
(p.15). His conclusion is that It is reasonable to believe in God and reasonable not to believe in God. At the same time Sheridan rightly takes aim at the idea, often supported in the daily media, that science has taken a stance against God. He concludes this is profoundly and extravagantly untrue. (p15). In this introduction he concludes, I think rightly, that Most of the things we believe in life are reasonable but not proven. (p.15)
Sheridan spends some time on the fact that it is only the developed Western world (USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand) that has given up on Christianity. He notes that Christianity is an increasingly powerful influence on the lives of millions in Asia, including China, South America and Africa and sadly proclaims that The West is a culture willing itself into amnesia and ignorance! (p.40). Noting that Australian culture has become more credulous about everything but Christianity (p.40), Sheridan quotes Chesterton’s observation that when you stop believing in Christianity you don’t believe in nothing, you believe in everything! (p203) In relation to the age old problem of evil and pain, Sheridan argues that Christian faith gives us a way of dealing with the pain that is an inevitable part of life. (p112).
Part 2 of this book is entitled “Christians and their New Worlds” and here Sheridan talks about “smuggling Christ into popular culture.” (p.171) He covers writers who embed Christian faith in their work like Marilynne Robinson’s Gilead and Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings alongside Graham Greene, Evelyn Waugh and Dostoyevski amongst others. Sheridan also notes television productions like Jane the Virgin about American Latino Christian values and morality and the American cop show Blue Bloods which has a Catholic New York police chief as its hero.
The remainder of part 2 provides backgrounded accounts of some remarkable Australian Christians of many denominations who have literally changed the lives of thousands of others through their activities governed by their faith. These include missionaries, business leaders, politicians, army officers, Chinese Christian leaders, and one or two archbishops.
This book is a substantial read and you have to stay with it. Sheridan is a major public figure in Australian media and indeed world wide. His authority in the area of international relations is beyond dispute. For him to “come out” with his life long faith in Christ was a big step, I am sure, for him. But this book is also impossible to put down due to Sheridan’s breezy and personal style. He is excited about his faith and he calls us to be excited about ours. 5 stars!
Louis Stone: Jonah, p/b, Melbourne, Text Publishing, 2013 (1911).
English born but living in Australia from age 13 Louis Stone lived in Redfern and Waterloo in working class Sydney before qualifying as a school teacher and achieving some success as a writer, with Jonah being his major success.
Jonah is a novel in two parts. Part One, entitled Larrikins All, describes street life in turn of the century inner-city Sydney in working class suburbs where unskilled workers lived in run down housing with poverty close at hand and little for young men to do but lounge around the streets getting into trouble with street gangs, the police and alcohol.
Jonah is the central character of the novel and the leader of The Push…the local group of toughs who ruled Botany Road and Cardigan Street. Jonah was a hunchback, deformed from birth but had the toughness and leadership skills to keep the group of twenty or so larrikins under control aided by his faithful and equally tough deputy known as Chook. Part 1 describes their aimless and poverty stricken lives mostly spent in part time jobs and pubs and looking for trouble on the streets at night as well as chasing girl friends.
There is a vitality and mate ship in the description of their loyalty to each other, amidst poverty, hopelessness, danger and bravado.
Part Two, entitled The Sign of the Shoe, describes the attempt of both Jonah and Chook to raise themselves out of the poverty and violence and achieve something with their lives. In part this is due to the women in their lives but also the leadership skills that gave them authority in gangland also came to the fore when opportunity for work and girlfriends intruded on their consciousness. Jonah in particular rises to significant heights with his business acumen and determination but has to deal with the handicap of a feckless and lazy wife with no maternal instincts whatsoever.
The novel moves along at an engaging pace and the author manages to maintain our interest in characters that do not initially show much promise at all. Surprising twists and turns keep the reader on tip toe and make the novel hard to put down. This novel, written in 1911, still has much to say what really matters in a life lived in a worthwhile manner, whatever the circumstances.
Sebastian Schütze, Caravaggio: The Complete Works, Trans. Karen Williams, h/b, Cologne, Taschen, 2000
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio revolutionised Western art in the C16th and early C17th. His startling and powerful and very human representation of human portraits and events, many of religious religious themes for ecclesiastical patrons have the power to touch us even more today than when he began his work. Critic Roger Fry describes him as the first modern artist, the first artist to proceed not by evolution but by revolution. (p.314)as
Schütze has five detailed chapters describing Caravaggio’s early work in Lombardy, early and later work in Rome, his late oeuvre in southern Italy: Naples-Malta-Sicily and a final epilogue entitled Reflections and Refractions. These chapters are complemented by richly presented full scale paintings including a number of fascinating enlargements demonstrating his ground-breaking naturalism. There follows a complete and detailed catalogue of all Caravaggio’s works with commentary, photographs and bibliography of each painting including autographs, copies and attributed works.
The art world was late in recognising the ground breaking importance of Caravaggio’s work and information about him is hard to find. The first major exhibition of his work was not held until 1951. He left no personal testimony about his work and no letters from him have ever surfaced. In addition many modern biographers have focussed on details of his controversial personal life to the detriment of an understanding of his formidable contribution to naturalism in his painting.
In May 1606 the painter inflicted a mortal wound upon Ranuccio Tomassini in a fight and had to flee Rome to Naples, Malta, Syracuse, Messina, Palermo and back to Naples and finally dying in Porto Ercole in mysterious circumstances on his way to Rome to receive a pardon from the Pope. This book is not about these events but about the paintings. For this reason Schütze has focussed on Caravaggio’s early biographers for his analysis (Mancini, Baglione and Bellori) rather than modern accounts based on very limited evidence of the reality of his personal life.
The energy, humanity and story in these paintings have been for me a long time passion. Ann and I tracked down Caravaggio’s work in churches and galleries in Rome, Malta and galleries around the world. In my view there is no one who communicates the passion, delicacy and power of human and divine stories and events better than Caravaggio. Schütze’s work and the excellent translation by Karen Williams have created a detailed and captivating analysis in a book which is itself a work of art. 5 stars.
Alison Weir: Mary Boleyn: ‘The Great and Infamous Whore’, p/b, London, Jonathan Cape, 2011.
Alison Weir: Mary Boleyn.
Mary Boleyn was the elder sister of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry V111. Information about Mary Boleyn is very scanty indeed and the result is that “historians” and other would be biographers and novelists have made up much of their own material to fill the gap not provided by the extant evidence. The vast majority of Alison Weir’s footnotes in this study are made up of rebuttals of assertions made by a lengthy array of would be commentators who have made assertions that have no historical back up or a simply in error.
Thus the slander that the young Mary Boleyn, in 1516 a lady in waiting to Mary Tudor, had a brief affair with King François of France dates from more than twenty years later. It was made by Rodolfo Pio, Bishop of Faenza, the Papal Nuncio in Paris, who wrote that the French king knew her here in France “per una grandissima ribalda et infame sopre tutte” (“for a very great whore, and infamous above all”). This statement was of course aimed at further discrediting Henry V111’s decision to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and to separate the English crown and nation from papal rule.
Like Thomas Hardy’s Tess, the facts that are available show that Mary Boleyn was “more sinnned against than sinning”. Weir demonstrates that while it may well be true that Mary Boleyn was for a brief time the mistress of both Francois 1, and later for a brief time maybe the mistress of Henry V111, in both cases, if this is true, the young girl had little power to avoid both situations. Weir argues that both situations did occur and that probably Mary Boleyn’s youngest child Katherine was the result of her affair with Henry V111 although this again cannot be proven.
Mary Boleyn married twice for love and her son Henry Carey (Baron Hunsdon) rose in stature to become a favourite of Elizabeth 1, eventually buried with significant pomp and grandeur in an extraordinary tomb in Westminster Abbey. She lived quietly and at times in some poverty and avoided the scandals which brought about the downfall of her more illustrious sister Anne. Although adhering fiercely only to known historical data this meticulous analysis, together with sumptuous photographs of paintings of the key players, make for compelling reading. The reader begins to feel immersed in the tumultuous reign of the Tudor monarchs. Five stars.
Brigitte HIntzen-Bohlen & Jürgen Sorges, Rome and the Vatican City: Art and Architecture, Trans. Peter Barton, Anthea Bell and Eileen Martin, h/b, Cologne, Könemann, 2005
Exceptional presentation of the art and architecture of Rome from its earliest foundation to the present day. Outstanding analysis of the earliest architectural remains and beautifully illustrated presentation of every major building and interior masterpieces. There are about 1000 churches in Rome and obviously not all can be covered. The major churches are here with detailed photography and excellent analysis of their history. Jürgen Sorges’ helpful historical essays include brief histories of the Roman emperors and kings, gladiatorial combat and the persecution of Christians, the mythical origins of Rome, Ancient wall coverings and murals, the Gods of the Roman pantheon, the legacy of Rome , the sack of Rome in 1527, the influence of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Rome in the second millenium AD, the life and art of Caravaggio, the studios of the Roman copyists, The Renaissance and the rebuilding of Rome, Mosaics, the megalomania of the Roman emperors, the cult of Mithras, women in ancient Rome, Chariot racing in the Circus Maximus, the art of the Cosmati, the Bath culture of ancient Rome, early Christianity, the first antique collections of Rome, the Vatican State, the Swiss Guard, the Restoration of the Sistine Chapel, and the Vatican gardens. There are excepional appendices with detailed analysis of Roman architecture:Classical to Baroque, a masterful chronology of events/figures/buildings/art, a helpful glossary of terms and details of the major figures of Rome’s colourful history. All of this is wrapped in the outstanding full colour quality of this fabulous Könemann series. The eternal city is a most complex place. This is the book to unravel it. 5 stars and rising.
Gillian Mears: Foal’s Bread, p/b, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2012
Gillian Mears landed a powerful and deeply moving novel of pre world war 2 rural Australian life in outback northern New South Wales, some sixteen years after her previous run of six well regarded and prize winning novels. I have read only one of her novels previously, The Mint Lawn, which was disturbing in its turn. I was thoroughly captivated by this three generation story based around a sport I was completely unaware of …horse high jumping. This bizarre and dangerous sport that was popular in the Northern New South Wales/Southern Queensland region is brought to life in vivid and stimulating fashion in Mears’ emotionally charged writing. The mysterious “foal’s bread” of the title appears to be a small separate piece of tissue which comes in the afterbirth of some foals and is highly regarded as an omen of good luck.
In a scene unfortunately too common in remote farming communities and families from my experience as a rural school principal, the startling commencement of the novel begins with a rush. A young teenager gives birth after childhood incestual assault from ‘Uncle Nipper, and bravely “boxing up” the child in a butter box, sets the baby free, Moses like, in a flowing creek, never to be seen alive again. This event sets the scene for a constant sense of threat throughout the novel.
The young girl with the unlikely name of Noah is the strong-willed and powerful lead player amongst a cast of memorable country figures, not least of which is her eventual daughter Rainey. Their entwined lives, both triumphant and traumatic carry the weight of a novel which refuses to let the reader go, each passage forcing the reader anxiously on to the dénouement. The novel also bears witness to the cruel power of polio disease prior to the development of the oral polio vaccine.
Images emerging from this novel will stay with me for some time I am sure. The evocation of the constant pressure of farming life, drought, flood, country town celebration and the silent Australian bush are all beautifully drawn my Mears. A worthy prize winner in 2012. 5 stars.
Marcel Proust: In Search of Lost Time: Volume 4, Sodom and Gomorrah, Trans. & Intro: John Sturrock, p/b, Camberwell, Penguin, 2003 (1921-2)
Volume 4 of French author Marcel Proust’s seven volume In Search of Lost Time, finds the narrator coming to terms for the first time and with some surprise, with homosexuality. Part 1 of Volume 4 is summarized as “First appearance of the men-women, descendants of those inhabitants of Sodom who were spared by the fire from heaven.” The Narrator is amazed to find that M. de Charlus, the busy, arrogant, learned, well married, committed Christian, well born member of the Guermantes family was also overwhelmingly consumed by his love for attractive young men whom he pursues in this volume with unflagging energy. His partners include the doorman of the Guermantes household, Jupien but his main love interest is the violinist military man Morel who is happy to maintain the relationship on financial grounds while being dishonestly unfathful in his relationships.
Alongside this relationship narrative with some very humorous interludes, the Narrator travels once more for the summer to the tranquil fictional beach resort of Balbec where he restablishes in a serious manner his relationship with the mysterious Albertine and in whose company the majority of the narrative is maintained in this volume. Together they negotiate their, at times, shaky relationship and at the same time join in the Balbec version of ‘society’ which in this rural environment consists of a regular luncheon party headed by Madame Verdurin, a salon which in Paris was well beneath the narrator’s class but in Balbec was satisfactory. The Verdurins had hired a property from the truly aristocratic Cambremers who had two dwellings in Balbec. Much of the humour of this volume comes from the tension between these two families and those who are enticed to dine in either of the homes. Key figures who emerge here are Dr Cottard with his arrogant medical authority, the violinist Morel, the Narrator’s friend Saint Loupe, and the indefatigable Brichot who is a walking encyclopedia of the derivation of every village, town and settlement in the whole of Europe.
The very short final chapter 4 commences with the Narrator’s detemination to end his relationship with Albertine and ends with his declaration that “I absolutely must marry Albertine.’ (Much to the reader’s surprise.).
This edtion is part of the six volume collection published by Penguin in 2002 which contains an outstanding and invaluable set of detailed explanatory notes and a very helpful translator’s introduction. I found this volume easier to read than the interminably trivial salon discussions of Volume 3. 4 stars.
Graham A Cole: He Who Gives Life: The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, h/b, Wheaton, Crossway Books, 2007
Graham Cole’s impressive book about the Holy Spirit is part of the American Foundations of Evangelical Theology Series. Although Cole writes from an evangelical perspective he gives a generous account of writers coming from Roman Catholic, liberal and even Islamic perspectives. This is not a book for beginners in theology. The language is sophisticated, Latin phrases are not always transliterated, the concepts are at times quite difficult, and Cole’s background in philosophy as well as theology means that his explanations of concepts and ideas use philosophical terminology (although usually with explanatory footnotes).
A reader used to reading theology will still find this work challenging and surprising. Long held ideas may well be shown to need further work. Cole is generous with his opponents and gives them a very fair hearing, but then goes on to show why he disagrees. A form of words that he uses more than once about various confident assertions of theologians and writers about the Holy Spirit is “How does [author’s name] know this? This all takes time and effort on the part of the reader and the footnotes are copious and detailed.
After a demanding introduction Cole deals with:
the elusiveness of the Spirit … The Spirit and the Triune God including detailed discussion about the Filoque clause and interpretative ideas from Basil of Caesarea, Augustine and Richard of St Victor. (the Filioque clause from the Nicene Creed is that The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Orthodox Christianity believes that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father only.) Cole suggests it should read: The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son!
Old Testament perspectives on the Ministry of the Spirit
The Spirit and Israel
The Spirit and the hope of Israel (note: this makes 3 significant chapters on Old Testament material!)
New Testament perspectives on the Ministry of the Spirit
The Spirit, The Church, and the Hope of Glory
The Spirit and ideas about the ‘Deification’ of the Spirit
Implications for Christian belief and practice including “What is Jesus doing now?” and “The Individual believer and the Fullness of the Spirit”
Are all of the Gifts of the Spirit for Today?
Speaking in Tongues
The Spirit and Knowing God and
Discerning the Spirit: Implications for Belief and Practice.
“The Magnificence of Divine Selflessness” (which is a summary and pulling together of the whole book.)
The book comes with a very helpful theological glossary; Suggestions for further reading; and Scripture and General indexes.
Some ideas that impressed or challenged me:
p.23 There is no higher pursuit than the worship of God
p.24 A high view of Scripture requires a respectful hermeneutic
p.24 Scripture is to interpret Scripture, Scripture is not to be interpreted against Scripture, and the plain Scripture is to interpret the obscure Scripture.
p24 fn3 …At times, however, the conservative Christian appears to read the daily newspaper with more sophistication than the Scriptures.
p.25 It is not our heart that determines our course, but God’s Word. [Bonhoeffer]
p.33 Systematic theology requires (i) The narrative of Scripture must be given its due weight, and (ii) both the writer will need to write and the reader will need to read intentionally coram Deo (before God).
p.33 “If you are a theologian, you truly pray. if you truly pray, you are a theologian.” (Evagrius Pontus).
p.33 “Christian theology begins, continues and ends with the inexhaustible mystery of God,” (Daniel L. Migliore).
p.33 “Any sound theology of the Holy Spirit..will be left with a certain remainder, a surplus unaccounted for, an area of mystery.” (Richard B. Gaffin).
p.36 Theology must not be left unapplied.
p.41. An evangelical —albeit controversially so—theologian. (re Clark H. Pinnock).
p. 44 The gracious and merciful God is also the judge of his people.
p.45 God is to be believed and obeyed. Moses is not Plato with a Hebrew voice.
p.45 “Theology states this [the greatness of God] by describing him as incomprehensible—not in the sense that logic is somehow different from what it is for us, so that we cannot follow the working of his mind at all, but in the sense that we can never understand him fully, just because he is infinite and we are finite. [J I Packer].
p.45 Upholding the mystery of God or the incomprehensibility of God should keep idolatry at bay….Calvin: “man’s nature, so to speak, is a perpetual factory of gods.” (Institutes)
p.46 The God of biblical depiction is untameable. There is no one like him.
p. 49 Barth argued that “The Gospel proclaims a God utterly distinct from humanity.” Only God can make God known, and he does so in Jesus Christ.
p.50 God cannot be domesticated and there are limits to our conceptualizing God.
p.50 “The Trinity can be stated in paradoxical and symbolic language, but it cannot be resolved into a rational system.” Donald Bloesch
p51 “Divine revelation does not completely erase God’s transcendant mystery, inasmuch as God the revealer transcends his own revelation. Carl F. H. Henry.
p52 Believing that God is mysterious in the sense of incomprehensible has a number of practical corollaries. At the attitudinal level, humility is the appropriate virtue.
p.60 Immanuel Kant has nothing good to say about the concept of the Trinity. Writing at the height of the eighteenth century Enlightenment, he argued: “The doctrine of the Trinity, taking literally, has no practical relevance at all, even if we think we understand it; and it is even more clearly irrelevant if we realise it transcends all our concepts. “
p.61 “….it is the doctrine of the Trinity that makes the doctrine of God actually Christian. “ (Brevard Childs)
p.62 What a culture teaches its young is the true index of what it values.
p.64 Re the trinity: …the definition of a Biblical doctrine in such un-Biblical language can be justified only on the principle that it is better to preserve the truth of Scripture than the words of Scripture. [B. B. Warfield].
p. 75 Love may characterize a pair as in a marriage of a man and a woman, but the fullest love requires a third. The perfection of love requires sharing with a third. Richard of St Victor.
p.79 Count Zinzendorf: ..understood the Trinity in familial categories: the Father as “our true Father,” the Spirit as “our true Mother,” and the Son as “our true Brother.”
p.81 fn81 “There are undoubtedly mysteries about him which none of us understands. But we must recognize that this doesn’t mean we know nothing about him whatever or that none of our claims, whether literal or figurative, are true. [Feinberg]
p.105 In the Old Testament references to the Spirit, are these texts about the Holy Spirit per se or about God the Spirit in action?
p109. In relation to the Old Testament: there is a “necessity of a multi-level reading of Scripture” (Childs)….we need a willingness to work with both historical exegesis and Christian theological interpretation.
p.111 There is no Biblical warrant for Calvin’s idea of common grace.
p113 Re translating “Ruach” as ‘wind/breath’ or ‘Spirit’ there is a need for modesty about our claims.
p.152. Re C1st Judaism. The problem is that C1st Judaism was such a variegated phenomenon. Rabbinic Judaism …was only one of the kinds of Judaism present at the time.
p.162 What is evident is that Jesus’ public ministry, whether as preacher, healer, or exorcist, is not to be understood without reference to the Spirit of God.
p.163 There are no references to the Holy Spirit in any of the accounts of the Transfiguration. 5 stars
Janet Morley: The Heart’s Time: A Poem a day for Lent and Easter, p/b, London, SPCK, 2011
Janet Morley is a freelance writer, speaker and workshop leader and has put together this excellent selection of poems about a range of themes surrounding Christian faith. While it is designed around the weeks leading to Easter the poems and commentary can be read with profit at any time of the year. Ann and I have just finished using this collection for our daily morning devotion together and have found it to be a stimulating, thoughtful and helpful start to each day.
The poems range widely in terms of authorship with classic works by George Herbert, Augustine, Christina Rossetti, Milton and William Blake mixed up with Emily Dickinson, R. S. Thomas, Margaret Atwood, E. E. Cummings, Rowan Williams, Philip Larkin and Seamus Heaney to name just a few. Not all the writers are “Bible believing Christians” but every poem throws out a genuine spiritual challenge and rich food for thought, especially when teased out by a skilled commentator.
Morley has also included a significant number of lesser known poets and these works encourage the reader to explore some less familiar spiritual challenges. Each poem comes with thoughtful commentary and analysis, not too technical but always helpful and there is a single question at the end of each day to ponder and think or write about. Each week has a different theme and these are: turning aside to the miracle; expressing our longings; struggle; being where we are; facing suffering and death; altered perspectives; holy week; and resurrection.
Poetry is not everyone’s cup of tea and if you’re not generally a reader of poetry can I suggest this book is an excellent way to begin and be surprised. If you have lived with poetry all your life these presentations will remind you of treasures you haven’t read for a while as well as opening up challenging devotional thoughts from a new perspective.
In her introduction Morley reminds us that Poetry makes us slow down, (p. ix) and she quotes Nicholas Albery:
‘To know a poem
is to slow down
to the heart’s time.’
If you find and read this book I am sure you will find an antidote to the irritation and loneliness of lockdown. I warmly commend it.
Chinua Achebe: No Longer At Ease; African Writers Series; Illustrated, Bruce Onobrakpeya, p/b, London, Heinemann, 1967 (1960)
A powerful and deeply moving novel of a young Nigerian student, Obi Okonkwo, who gains an academic scholarship to study in England, obtaining a first class honours degree in English Literature and then returns to NIgeria as a Government public servant, on a good salary. Obi’s family are deeply Christian and his scholarship to England was provided by the village of Umuofia who had formed a union with the aim of collecting money to send their brightest and best to study in England.
Obi of course returns to his village of a changed man, with a sophisticated love of English Literature, a strong sense of his own status and entitlement, and little desire to follow the dreams and vision of the Umuofia Union or his strict Christian parents especially in the area of whom he should marry. Obi readily obtains a job with a reasonable salary but he has repayments to make to the Union and there are financial expectations from his family and friends as well as some hefty Government taxes. With little experience in having anything like a regular salary Obi spends his money at a pace that far outweighs his means and inevitable trouble ensues. In addition he is attracted to a girl from a tribe ostracized by his Umuofia family.
In emerging cultures engaging in an attempt to participate in the seemingly endless wealth of the first world there is a desire to assist one’s friends and family and to demonstrate with material things that one has “arrived” and has succeeded. It is not so much greed as it is a sense of obligations. The short answer of course is that the globe has never been able to afford the extremities of first world greed and neither can its newest rivals like China sustain unlimited growth and power. Achebe does not write about Obi to condemn him but to demonstrate that this young graduate, unprepared for the cultural “Western” explosion occurring in Africa in the mid-C20th and lost between his family’s Christian values and his own search for love, simply loses his way.
Achebe writes with unerring clarity and tension as Obi’s life, love and family begin to unravel. He sees it happening but seems powerless to stem the tide of moral, family and job pressures in a rapidly changing Nigerian society bravely celebrating its independence from colonial rule. Chinua Achebe, who died 2013 aged 82 is widely regarded at Nigeria’s finest writer and his success lead to an avalanche of African authors creating a new literary tradition. Achebe was a major critic of the way European writers have written about and misunderstood African life and reality. He took particular aim at Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, and his case was well supported by Palestinian author and polymath Edward W. Said amongst many others. Whatever one’s view of Conrad, after reading Achebe, you can never see Heart of Darkness in quite the same way as before.
No Longer At Ease is a thought provoking and emotionally demanding read and for Australian readers, inevitably invokes thoughts of Aboriginal writers and artists making their way in a highly Westernised society but one which is becoming increasingly multi-cultural and open to a broad range of world views. 5 stars.
Douglas Adams: The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, p/b, London, Pan, 1983 (1979)
Radical atheist, sometime member of Monty Python, author, playwright, Dr Who script editor and producer, bodyguard, chicken shed cleaner, an Apple Master computer buff, an environmental activist and stage revue director amongst several other jobs. He was six foot five, married with one child and died at just 49 years of age after a heart attack. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy was the first of a five book “trilogy” of life in the Galactic world.
I have read very little science fiction but I have always been attracted by the notion of the meaning of life being 42! I enjoyed reading this fast moving comic/sad story which seems to see the various planets of the universe as sharing many of the problems known to us on planet Earth.
The result is a fast-moving, spit second life changing romp through space with the unlikely otherwise unremarkable Arthur Dent from Earth whisked away from our planet as a hitch-hiker on a spaceship just seconds before the destruction of our troubled world by Vogons building a new galactic superhighway. With fellow earthsider Trillian, and Galactic explorers Ford Prefect and Zaphod Beelblebrox plus the depressed robot Marvin, they find their way after many near misses to the mythical foundation planet of the universe named Magrathea, ruled by two busy mice. With this introduction, I am sure you can’t wait to read the story! The truth is that Adams has a brilliantly amusing turn of phrase, the book is quite short and it is surprisingly hard to put down. 5 stars.
John Stott: The Cross of Christ, with Study Guide, 20th Anniversary Edition, h/b, Nottingham, Inter-Varsity Press, 2011 (1986); 460 pages.
John Stott was, for much of his ministry, Assistant Priest, then Rector and Rector Emeritus of All Souls Langham Place in London from 1945 to 1974. His international reputation developed from his founding of the London Institute for Contemporary Christianity and his Chairmanship of the National Evangelical Anglican Congress. He was a principal author of the 1974 Lausane Covenant. Stott’s little paperback Basic Christianity is still widely read and had significant influence.
John Stott was a unifying force for evangelicalism and Christianity around the world through his own ministry of evangelism, public speaking and strategic planning for Gospel based ministry. In the Western world perhaps no Christian leader other than Billy Graham and Pope John Paul 11 has made a greater impact on the Christian lives of individuals than John Stott.
The Cross of Christ was Stott’s major contribution to Christian theology, written at the peak of his career. The book is not an easy read in spite of its conversational style. Whilst most Christians could write a short sentence on the meaning of Christ’s crucifixion, any further and deeper explanation of the Christ’s deliberate intention to go to Jerusalem and die and what that means for Christians living today would have few enthusiastic takers.
Stott leaves no stone unturned as he works steadily, clearly and thoughtfully through the centrality of the Cross for Christian faith; the reason for Christ’s death at a young age; the gravity of Christian sin and the problem of forgiveness; the notion of satisfaction for sin; the self-substitution of God; the meaning of salvation; Christ’s role in the revelation of God; the question of evil and its conquest; and the importance of the Cross in living as a Christian in the C21st.
Stott gives no quarter to those who would seek a comfortable and self-satisfied Christian life. He writes: There can be no Christianity without the Cross, (p.81) and strikingly: Jesus could not save himself AND Christians! (p92) Indeed on p. 333 he writes directly against “comfortable Christians”! Indeed Stott suggests that it is not possible to be faithful and popular! (p401)
In relation to suffering Stott prefers “creative suffering” to “redemptive suffering” on the grounds that there can only be one Redeemer. He writes, channelling Paul Tournier: Suffering is not the cause of growth but it is its occasion…while suffering may not be creative in itself, we are scarcely ever creative without suffering. (p.369).
Stott comments on our sense of shame in before the Cross (p98) as well as the difficult to handle fact that God’s love is a holy love (p.105) —an idea that is not very popular in C21st theology! Stott notes that human pride can’t handle God taking the rap for us (p.191)..an idea expressed in the late Christopher Hitchins’ comment that the idea of God sending his Son to die for us is a horrific example of cosmic child abuse. Stott prefers Forsyth’s notion that The atonement did not procure grace, it flowed from grace. (p203)
Stott has read widely in the Church Fathers and in modern theology both liberal and evangelical. He is not afraid of controversy and he deals fairly and in detail with those who disagree with him. The book comes with a detailed bibliography, a very helpful study guide for small groups, and a useful biblical reference list. This is a book which answers the call, “know what you believe!” I warmly recommend it.
Gabriele Bartz & Eberhard König: The Louvre: Art & Architecture, Trans. Mo Croasdale, Richard Elliott, Sandra Harper and Judith Phillips, h/b, Cologne, Könemann, 2001
Living up to the exceptionally high publishing standards of this Könemann art and architecture series, art historians Bartz and König have produced a wonderfully compact, readable and exciting visual treat. The Louvre, which began its life as a fortified tower and became an ever expanding magnificent palace was opened as a museum in 1793 by Louis XV1. It’s extraordinary collection of paintings, (especially French, Old Dutch, Old German, Flemish and Dutch Baroque & Islamic ), sculpture, decorative arts, and oriental antiquities especially Oriental, Egyptian, Greek, and Etruscan is unmatched in the world, except perhaps London.
Of course there are the renowned classics such as the Venus de Milo, the Nike of Samothrace, the Mona Lisa, David’s The Oath of the Horatii and Rubens’ Medici Cycle, but there is a seemingly endless array of galleries with palatial surroundings highlighting the quality and excitement of thousands of years of artistic endeavour.
Many paintings and exhibits are illustrated with exceptional clarity and helpful comments and there are particularly illuminating illustrated essays on the historical development of the building, the impact of various revolutions, Napoleon’s theft of many European treasures, some of which but not all, were returned, the work of professional art thieves, and countless other stories of the life of the Louvre. The text includes detailed biographies of the artists, explanations of the art work illustrated, historical analysis of the antiquities section, useful maps of the complex layout of the museum, a useful guide to artistic techniques, a very helpful illustrated time chart, a useful list of other works about the Louvre and a detailed index.
The unique skill of the publishers of this series is that the presentation and explanation is not overwhelming. There is enough to excite and puzzle over but even a novice reader can get a sense of an overview of one of the world’s outstanding treasures. Although I have visited the Louvre I now see that it would take at least ten visits to get a sense of the size and stretch of this magnificent palace and museum. It would be worth the effort! 5 stars.
Peter Carey: True Story of the Kelly Gang, h/b, St Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 2001
I have attempted to read several of Peter Carey’s books over the years but never managed to finish one until I read this book which is entrancing and for which Carey won the 2001 Commonwealth Writer’s Award and six other significant literary awards.
Of course Ned Kelly is an Australian icon, with his Irish Catholic background, his hatred of the “squattocracy” (the wealthy aristocracy), and the local police. His outrageously bold exploits of stock stealing, the bank robberies at Euroa and Jerilderie, the murder of police, not to mention his last stand at Glenrowan have become Australian legends. After his trial for murder in Melbourne, four thousand people signed appeals for his life to be spared. His armoured helmet is regularly on show in Melbourne and some famous films have been made of his life.
Whilst criticism is often made of Carey’s departure from “the true story” of Ned Kelly, the most that can be found against him does not amount to much. The manufactured love affair with Mary Hearn which produced a daughter to whom he writes his “true story” has no factual basis. Neither do the references to some of his “gang” members as “Sons of Sieve” and practitioners of rebellion and transvestism known in C18th and C19th Ireland seem to have any basis in fact. These two elements aside, Carey has of course made up the conversations between Ned, his family members, the police and his “gang” but the narrative does not seem to stray very widely from the known facts.
What we are left with is a quite gruelling account of the hardships of impoverished early “selectors” in rugged north-eastern Victorian hill country, trying to scrounge a living by clearing trees and farming and coping with wealthy land owners and their land grants as well as pressure from the emerging “society” of the towns and from the not always trustworthy police.
The reader is quickly drawn into this yarn with its swear words either bracketed with a straight line and only first and last letters or in some cases replaced by the endearing “adjectival”. Harry Power, the bushranger was the real deal, his mother’s imprisonment accurate and the account of his arrest and hanging simply and truthfully told without sentimentalism.
My own grandfather, whom I never met, was born into a very humble wooden “shack/cottage in Katandra West and struggled to make a living as a farmer in dry and difficult conditions. A street sign called “Prideaux Street” is the only remnant of his home today.
When I was first married my wife and I lived in a small, rather damp cottage on the Broken River which at times flooded to our doorstep in North-Eastern Victoria in Kelly country. Each day after teaching I had to cut wood for heating in very cold and wet winters and we were quite a long way from civilisation. We had one rather surly farmer and his wife as our only human contact and no telephone or internet of course. When our first child was born we were a long way from medical help and left to our own devices. Of course I had a steady job but in those days teachers were not well paid and we made shift. Nevertheless our creature comforts were a hundred times better than those faced by the impoverished Kelly family
I am sure there are more historically careful accounts of Ned Kelly’s exploits but I doubt if any of them have the vigour, intensity, and emotionally charged atmosphere of Carey’s The True Story of the Kelly Gang. I could not put this book down. 5 stars and rising.
Roy M Prideaux: Prideaux: A Westcountry Clan, h/b, Chichester, Phillimore & Co. Ltd, 1989
I am no fan of genealogical studies in general, although I have enormous respect for the effort and skill which goes towards the task of understanding our ancestry. My good friend Geoff Leunig has spent a significant part of his busy life exploring the origins of his surname Leunig, of European origin and has made contact with family members far and wide overseas.
Roy Prideaux, the author of Prideaux A Westcountry Clan work was born in Plymouth UK, and was a graduate in philosophy, economics and politics from Keble College in Oxford University. He had been a University College principal, a school inspector, travelled widely including a job as Principal of the Malawi Polytechnic and helped to establish a university in Malawi. In his retirement he served on the Commission for Racial Equality and devoted himself for ten years to mental health, community education and counselling as well as becoming a student of population studies and demography.
This work, a labour of ten years, is an extraordinary account of the male line of the Prideaux clan which can be traced back with reasonable accuracy to John, 2nd son of Sir Roger Pridias of Orcharton, who married Joan, daughter and coheir of Gilbert Adeston who died leaving their son Giles Prideaux as their heir. Roy Prideaux argues that the 2000 or so Prideauxs which he has traced living in England by the end of the C18th can be traced back to the marriage of John Prideaux and Joan Adeston in a deed dated to 1373. Prior to Sir Roger Pridias the name can be further traced back to Paganus de Prideaux vel Pridias, Lord of Prideaux in Luxullion near Fowey co. Cornwall before the Conquest living in Prideaux Castle, whose son died in 1122. The name is Celtish/Norman. Obviously since the end of the C18th there has been an explosion of Prideauxs living in the UK, but also many in America, Barbados, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia to name a few.
The author traces his own “tribe” from Plymouth, followed by Adeston/Dartmouth/Theuborough; Bodmin/Padstow/Theuborough/Soldon under the Tudors; Plymouth/Holbeton/Luson; The thirty Stuart families/Puritan and Royalists/The Protectorate, Sects and Parties/John of Cubert and the Prideauxs of Camborne/Illogan/ St.Allen/Rutland/the Isles of Scilly and the USA; Richard of St. Issey and the Prideauxs of St. Clether/Camelford/Callington/Altarnum/Landulph/Torpoint and South east Cornwall/The Prideauxs of Barnstaple/Barbados/Dulverton/Bristol/Lydney; Dispersal in the South Hams/The Quakers and the Luson Pedigree/Ermington/Dartmouth/KIngsbridge/Totnes/Teignmouth/Bristol/Plymouth and London; and the Prideauxs of East Devon-Neverton Hall and Prideaux Place/London/the North and the clan dispersed. This is an absolutely monumental task with twenty pedigrees clearly laid out.
What stops this book from being a catalogue of names and towns is that Roy Prideaux, the author has an insatiable appetite for a good story and an excellent knowledge of English history. Thus the book catalogues a thousand years of history in Cornwall and Devon and the author has tried very hard to establish the role played in that history by various Prideaux families. Thus there are tales of the Black Death, marauding pirates from Normandy, the founding of St Michael’s Mount, information from the Domesday Book, Saxon and Norman encounters, Henry 1, John 1, the Magna Carta, Henry 111, Edward 1, socage, The Wars of the Roses, John of Gaunt, Richard 11, Wycliffe and the Lollards, the Crusades, Chaucer, the tin mining industry, piracy on the seas, sheep and wool, the gradual decline of the Prideauxs from knightly status to “gent” to commoner, Henry V, Henry V1, Henry VIII, The break up of the Monasteries, Richard Edgecumbe, Thomas Cromwell, William 1,The Reformation, militant Protestantism, Bloody Mary, Elizabeth 1, Roger Bacon, Thomas A’Beckett, Cromwell and the Puritans, Lutherans and Papists, Coverdale’s Bible, Jesuits, Huguenots fleeing to England, epidemic diseases, Columbus, the rounding of Cape Horn, Cabot and Newfoundland, Spanish Armada, Hawkins, Drake, The Slave Trade, Institution of the Gregorian calendar, England and Scotland tensions, fierce taxation of the Irish, Barbary pirates, waste and corruption at the English court, poor laws, the Cornish language, Archbishop Laud, dominant Puritan influence, Irish massacre of 1642, execution of Charles 1, Puritans sail to America, Cromwell’s model army, Charles 11 plots, the Protectorate and Restoration, death of Cromwell, Milton, witch hunts, Titus Oates, the Plague, Fires, Dutch attacks, Earl of Shaftesbury, James 11 and the promotion of Catholicism, Monmouth’s rebel army, William of Orange and the Dutch army, battle of Sedgemoor, small pox, transportation to the Colonies, harsh conditions of tin miners in the C18th, miserly wages, rapacious manifestations of early capitalism, the corn shortage, tuberculosis and silicosis, children dying in infance, American gold rush, English fighting in US cavalry, copper and lead mining, Cornishmen flocked to Chicago and Detroit, Prideauxs in Australia, smuggling, stamp act, workhouses, rise of extreme poverty, Jamaica annexation, political prisoners sent back to England as servants, C18th imperialism, slave trade, wool and silk trade, Napoleonic threat, Bristol- a violent and dangerous city/English/Welsh/Irish, small holder families driven to labouring, Judge Jeffries, Irish famine, canals and railways developing, advance of cotton, prostitution in London, Lord Acton exposed, emigration to Australia/Barbados/USA/New Zealand, Quakers, Walpole, Dr Johnson and much more. Thus this book can be read comfortably by skipping through the genealogies and understanding the history of England from the point of view of an ordinary Cornish family. The bitter and harsh conditions and the constant wars and divisions look very different when seen from the point of view of the common man and not the heroes.
There are indeed a few Prideaux heroes including Edmund Prideaux of Netherton and Forde Abbey, Cromwell’s Attorney General, Humphrey Prideaux D.D. Dean of Norwich and scholarly author of Prideaux’s Connexion between the Old and New Testaments, Edmund Prideaux, the C18th architect of Prideaux Place, and Bishop John Prideaux, Rector of Exeter College Oxford, Canon of Christchurch and Vice Chancellor of Oxford.
My father Dick Prideaux was born in Shepparton to William Prideaux and Minnie Pressley. William’s father, my great grandfather Richard Ellis Prideaux emigrated to Australia from the Scilly Isles off the coast of Cornwall in 1863. Richard Ellis’s forbear Stephen Prideaux moved to Tresco in the Scilly Isles from Cornwall and died there in 1784. My own grandsons Samuel Prideaux (son of Andrew Prideaux) and Bede Prideaux (son of David Prideaux) have the responsibility to continue an ancient line!
This is a labour of immense proportions, told with substantial learning across a wide variety of specialisms from Economics to History to Politics and Literature. A fine achievement indeed and a model of excellence for other genealogists. 5 stars.
Helmut Thielicke: How Modern Should Theology Be? Trans. George Anderson, p/b, USA, Collins/Fontana, 1970 (1967)
I read this little book every five years or so just so I can remind myself what a remarkably clear and helpful presentation of the basic Christian faith. It is Helmut Thielicke’s second book out of a vast output to come but still I believe one of his best. Thielicke was a German priest and theologian who, although sacked by Hitler and having to flee, managed to survive the war and became a wonderful theologian and defender of the faith in post-war Germany and in the West. His books have really helped me and it was a privilege to locate his grave when we visited Hamburg with a school group.
Thielicke’s often quoted statement that the gospel must constantly be forwarded to a new address, (p.10)has stayed with me through all my years in Christian work of various kinds. He reminds us that Jesus Christ wants me totally. He wants me to belong to him with more than my conscience, my emotions, my anxieties: He wants my reason, my knowledge, and all the areas of my consciousness as well. (p15). So we have to listen to the scientist and the historian and any other expert but we must also call all knowledge into question not with human philosophy but rather by studying and understanding the depth of human misery and utter abandonment, on a criminal’s cross. This is where Christ’s love drove him, and only those who seek him in this ungodly wretchedness will find him. (P13).
I have written about this book in a previous blog so rather than analysing the four key ideas in this small but challenging book, this time around I simply want to put out there a few sentences that deeply called to me this time around.
– Modernity approaches the package of divine truth, opens it carefully and sets aside that portion of the contents which is unacceptable to him. (p.17)
– We say, are you God, worthy of us? We think your truth will have to be worked over a little before it will suit our vital questions and our thinking habits! (p18)
– Isn’t the history of Christianity the sum of the fatal misunderstandings which have arisen over Jesus Christ?….No human idea could have endured such attacks, amputations, and crucifixions without ending in the graveyard of intellectual history…but this is the miracle, that from this succession of conceptual graves Jesus Christ has risen again and again! (p19)
– The Gospel writers have their differences because each of them interpret the events with varying purposes. (p.29)
– Modern autobiography begins with the person who came to be and then looks back and seeks the reason from the early life to the end. The Gospel writers also read the story backwards so to speak. They write about these events could not help but the history of the earthly Jesus in the light of his resurrection. (p.32)
– The earliest Christians were simply incapable of depicting the history of Jesus without reference to their faith ..they are not willing to let myth replace history! (p.34)…They did not set out to write the biography of an inhabitant of Nazareth. They saw that figure in the light of the third day, when the incognito was lifted. (p35)
– In this drama, no one can merely be a spectator, and reporter. They are drawn into the action and forced to participate. They must present their own confession. [p.37]
– Only as a disciple do I discover who Jesus Christ is…Then, I cannot but testify…(p38)
– The miracles were to show us that the created world is entrusted to him, that he can bring whatever is bungled or derailed back into line and calm the groaning of creation. (p41)
– The Gospel writers could only write within their store of experience which is now at their disposal, including their confrontation with the living Lord. They are witnesses…the witness cannot be separated from the testimony and vice versa. He speaks personally. (p42)
– Matthew’s account is set in the midst of Jesus teaching about discipleship and following Christ now..in the danger and insecurity. (p45)
– In the sinking boat, entrust everything to him. (p46)
– Jesus snatches us from the world of death and enables us to live in his peace amid the tumult….The narrative itself becomes a confession. (p47) (Jesus asks the disciples “where is your faith before he stills the waves in Matthew’s Gospel).
– What will be able to exercise power over us? the cancer? the bombs? the schemers? Or is it the Lord of life and death? …Some want to see proof first — they will never see the miracle or receive the reward of faith. (p50)
– In the Gospel, history is written in a way that involves interpretation and confession. The miracle is thus no longer the cause of faith; instead it gives additional confirmation to that faith..illustrating it. [p52]
– Matthew has made the miracle itself less important…it is about faith and little faith. [p53]
– Jesus himself played down the call for signs and wonders…He knew that a Son of God hanging on a gallows has nothing godlike to sell and doesn’t put anything at our disposal…We go no where in faith if we are only impressed by miracles. [p54]
– Our faith does not live on reports of miracles. We live on what He himself was, and is, and always will be. We believe in the Lord who performs the miracles — not in the miracles. [p55]
– There are perils in discipleship, cf Bonhoeffer…Jesus Christ is always where we are. [p57]
– No one can tell the story of the Lord without at the same time telling the story of his own life, his experience with Him. [p59]
– When will the world end? is tied with Jesus’s return. [p65] 5 Stars and rising
– My death is not merely a departure, but a going home. [p.68]
– When unrighteousness gets the upper hand, the love of many will grow cold. [p.70]
– One day faith will see what it has believed. [p72]
– Lift up your heads for your redemption draws near. [p73]
– The events of Auschwitz did not happen by chance. [p76] (Adelburt Stifter, Austrian poet]
– A good part of our discouragement stems from our constant preoccupation with ourselves. [p79]
– Those who call upon his presence here learn to know his inexhaustible riches—an to await still more. The longer they believe, the more insatiable is their hope; the greater the fulfilments they anticipate, the less importance they put upon themselves. It is this shifting relationship between small and great, important and unimportant, which must thus be properly arranged if it is not to produce neuroses and perplexities in my life. [p80]
– Preaching has primacy over theology..theology merely works back to investigate the basis of that which it has already heard proclaimed. [p85]
Oscar Wilde: The Picture of Dorian Gray, [in The Complete Oscar Wilde Illustrated: Stories, Plays and Poems, London, Tiger Books International, 1994 (1890)
Irish born Oscar Wilde was the master of the epigram and a ferocious writer of short stories, highly successful plays and poetry. The Picture of Dorian Gray is another take on the Faustian notion of a dice with the Devil, in this instance taking the form of well born, whimsical, outrageous and decidely not well-meaning Lord Henry. Henry was impressed by Dorian Gray’s beauty and became his society mentor and downfall.
The story turns on a painting of Dorian Gray produced by his friend Basil Hallward. In the process of sitting for the portrait Hallward and Gray are joined by Lord Henry who takes an immediate interest in Dorian Gray’s extraordinary beauty and style. Lord Henry’s enthusiastic praise of Gray’s beauty leads the young man to begin to fear growing old and losing his beauty. When the painting is finally finished Dorian Gray is deeply distressed…with his eyes fixed on the portrait, he cries “I shall grow old, and horrible, and dreadful. But this picture will always remain young…If only it were the other way…” And indeed, when Dorian Gray hung the painting in his own home, that very thing happened. Almost immediately the painting began to show signs of an ageing and less pleasant man, while Dorian Gray himself remained young and beautiful.
Immediately, under the baleful influence of Lord Henry, Dorian Gray’s life spiralled down to ever increasing degrees of selfish, hurtful, dangerous behaviour and cultural greed, as well as the trashing of former close friends in the most sadistic way. His place in society was saved by the impeccability of his surface manners and appearance but it was not long before folk who had been badly hurt by him would move away when he arrived in a room. He became an addicted devotee of fashion and Dandyism; he associated with the leading musicians and performers of his day; he hedonistically pursued his lust for beautiful things including Roman Catholic ritualism, Darwinian theoretical excesses, the study of fragrant and dark perfumes, the collection of native musical instruments, the opera, the study and collection of precious jewels, the pomp and ceremony of European courts, the study of exquisite embroideries and tapestries, the excesses of ancient kings and rulers in the vein of Louis XIV and the Medicis, a passion for ecclesiastical vestments, the joy of travel and everywhere and in every way, surrounding his life with treasures.
As Dorian Gray’s ocean of selfish greed and horror swamped him his paranoia towards any threat led him to murder and destruction. The dice with the devil could have only one ending.
In between this sorry tale Wilde manages to implant his normal wit and and classy epigrams in the description of various garden parties and clever conversations. These brief moments provide clever light in an otherwise searing story. The sheer class, beauty and wicked pace of Wilde’s prose makes us wish that he had produced more novels. I believe few writers have matched his genius for wit, philosophical jousting and social comment. This is a moral tale with a huge reach. 5 stars and rising.
Emily Maguire: Love Objects, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 2021
Emily Maguire is an award winning Australian author and this is her sixth novel alongside many articles in Australian national daily news papers on sex, feminism, culture and literature. Love Objects has the phenomenon of hoarding as a central theme, but the novel is also a rich analysis of the generational interaction of two families with all the complexity, deep feelings, anger and joy which such relationships evolve over time.
A running theme throughout the novel is sexual relationships between young people. The novel explores the dangerous and hurtful power of the internet to severely impact the personal lives of individuals when invidious persons use hidden photography to go online without consent and destroy the reputation and well being of victims.
The novel is set within a working class environment in which every key individual in two families is examined with scarifying honesty and a high degree of potential for humiliation. The language used is common in Australian society and at time brutal. This is a salutary read for Australian teenagers but few of those who need such a book would probably ever bother to read the novel. I suspect a movie script might reach a wider audience.
The novel has a neat and tidy conclusion in which the three principal characters emerge with hopeful new beginnings. It would be wonderful if all human interactions and challenges worked out so well.This is a fast moving read which is never dull and keeps the reader anxiously wondering what on earth will happen next.
I find it disappointing that the vintage Australian f-word can now just be taken for granted in serious literature. There is an unwritten statement that it is now ok and also an assumption that every child of a “working class family uses such language. The writer tries hard in two instances to show that wealthy Australians can also be pleasant understanding people who care about stuff but the two instances are underwhelming. As a working class boy myself, I would have preferred to see a wider spread of individual characters than the somewhat type casting that rises to the fore in this novel or are these all just Howard’s “battlers” at work. 3 stars, considering it is a sixth novel.
Anne Mueller von der Haegen & Ruth Strasser: Trans. Paul Aston, Peter Barton, Susan James, Eithne McCarthy, & Iain Macmillan: Tuscany: Art and Architecture, Cologne, Könemann, 2001.
Ever since our first visit to Italy I have had a complete addiction to the region of Tuscany, alongside it seems, many other Australians and many English and American poets, artists and writers and film makers. There is something about the light at sunset, the little villages set among hills, the green paddocks surrounded by poplars, the ancient Villanova and Etruscan culture, the extraordinary early Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance flowering of architecture, art and sculpture and the sequestered villages alongside major centres like Florence, Siena and Pisa.
So many heroes of literature, thinking, art and architecture emerged from Tuscany including Boccacio, Botticelli, Brunelleschi, Caravaggio, Cellini, Cimabue, Dante, Donatello, Fibonacci, Fra Angelico, Galileo, Gentile Artemesia, Giambologna, Leonardo Da Vinci, Machiavelli, Mantegna, Massacio, the amazing Medici Dynasty especially Cosimo 1 and Lorenzo 1 the Magnificent, Michelangelo, Raphael, Ucello, Vasari and many others.
Ann and I have spent happy days in and around Arezzo following the Piero della Francesca trail, long stays in Florence and San Gimignano and return visits to favourite places like Montepulciano and the stunning church of San Biago, Lucca and Pisa. For none of these visits did I have access to Mueller and Strasser’s amazingly detailed and descriptive Tuscany. Perhaps it is just as well. I would have stressed out my longsuffering wife even more by hunting down every major artistic work in every cathedral and gallery.
Ten years would not be enough to get to know Tuscany fully. But this work is an excellent substitute. It is detailed but precise and not too much to take in. There are extremely helpful appendices of architectural form, a glossary of terms used, brief histories of Etruscan and Roman history in Tuscany, brief biographies of individuals mentioned and an excellent index. This is not a “travel” book in the sense that there is no advice re trains, roads to take, places to stay or restaurants etc. Neither does it deal with Tuscan cookery or wines. It is a culture vulture book, compact and easily stored in a travel bag and very clearly translated. 5 stars and rising.
John Dickson: Is Jesus History? UK, thegoodbook Company, 2020
John Dickson is an outstanding Australian historian and theologian and a visiting academic at Oxford University and Ridley College Melbourne. This little book (just $15.00 at Koorong) is deceptive. Dickson is mounting an argument that like many legal cases, most historical knowledge is based on testimony of those who were present at the event. This is so particularly with ancient history where cameras, electronic recording and television were absent.
The overwhelming conclusion established in chapter 1 of this book is that the vast majority of historians today, whether Christian believers or not, acknowledge that Jesus of Nazareth was a real figure in the history of Roman occupied Galilee and Judea. Historians accept that the four New Testament Gospel accounts of Jesus’s activities and the comments of Paul the Apostle in his letters are bona fide historical accounts as valid as the historical writings of the Roman historian Tacitus written just twenty years later. E. P. Sanders, a major historian of Judaism in the centuries before and after Christ, and no friend of Christian apologetics or of theology, nevertheless writes:
There are no substantial doubts about the general course of Jesus’ life: when and where he lived, approximately when and where he died, and the sort of thing that he did during his public activity. [E.P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus (Penguin Books, 1993), quoted by Dickson on p. 19}
Dickson goes on to argue that in fact much of what we “know” to be true, we accept by faith. He writes …through long experience of interacting with others in the world, we have come to think that it is wise, most of the time, to put a good measure of trust in the testimony of others, when those people seem to be giving that testimony in good faith. (p.24). That is in general, faith in testimony is a generally reliable bridge to personal knowledge.
Dickson accepts that at times human testimony is flawed or malicious, so much depends on a person or writer’s general reliabilty and the coherence of their testimony. The remainder of this book is a defence of these characteristics in relation to the text of the New Testament. It is a lively and interesting discussion and the truth and coherence of the New Testament writers is well defended with clear evidence.
Of course the key argument is Dickson’s defence is the final chapter on the resurrection. His argument here goes to a person’s belief about the universe itself. If “the laws of nature” define the limits of what is possible then there is no place for a miracle of resurrection. But if one sees those laws as pointing to the existence of a law-giver, to God, then of course the possibility of resurrection is real. Dixon’s historical defence of the resurrection rests on the fact that the evidence is early, it is widespread (i.e. more than one source, and the witnesses are credible.
This is an engaging book to give to a Christian seeker or simply to remind a believer why they believed in the first place. It comes with useful suggestions for further reading.
Graham A. Cole: Faithful Theology: An Introduction, p/b, Wheaton, Crossway, 2020
I have never been a fan of systematic theology! Having been a teacher of Biblical Studies/Texts and Traditions and Religious Studies for over thirty years much of my reading has been in Biblical commentaries and texts on particular issues. Of course I have dipped into the greats for theological examinations and particular issues but that’s not the same as reading a complete Systematic Theology. Although I have read through Calvin’s Institutes twice over the years, he is an easy read compared with the formidable demands of Karl Barth in fourteen volumes, Wolfhart Pannenburgh in three, Edward Schillebeeckx in two or even Paul Tillich in 1 volume!
When my son Andy placed Graham Cole’s little paperback in my hand I thought, now’s the time to start! So this is an excellent book for anyone to read to find out what the mystery of systematic theology is and whether the task is worth the effort! The Revd Dr. Peter Adam writes that we are all theologians, and we all practise theology, good or bad. Ministers and lay people need to learn how to do theology, to think theologically, to increase our theological awareness and theological ability and to think God’s thoughts after him.
Graham Cole’s book is based around five sources of knowledge about systematic theology. These are: The Word of revelation (The Bible); The Witness of Christian of Christian Thought and Practice (Church History); The World of Human brokenness (World history, the nature of man and the problem of evil); The Work of Wisdom (Human intellect and insight, ideas and faith); and finally, The Way of Worship, (“Putting it all together in truth and love”). In this final source, Cole focusses helpfully on the doctrine of the Trinity. This little book comes with scriptural and general indexes and a guide to further reading. It can be read comfortably in two days. 5 stars
I note below some sentences or famous words that I found helpful.
On the Bible: Scripture interprets scripture; Scripture is not to be interpreted against Scripture; plain Scripture is to interpret obscure Scripture. (p.27)
Have many teachers but only one Master. (Christ). (p.28)
…the role of [literary] genre in a wise [Bible] reading strategy. (p.30)
Turn what you read about God into prayer and praise to God. [John Packer] (p.32)
Cranmer’s Collect on the Scriptures:
Blessed Lord, which hast called all holy Scriptures to be written for our learning; grant us that we may in such wise hear them, read, mark, and inwardly digest them; that by patience and comfort of thy holy word, we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life, which thou hast given us in our saviour Jesus Christ. (p.37)
– “Tradition in its proper sense is the interpretation and application of the eternal truth in the vernacular and life of the present generation. Scripture without such a tradition is impossible. [Herman Bacinck] (p.41)
Living dogmatics never allows its problems to be self-originated as by a virgin birth, but it is always being fertilized, achieving its productive impulse through the questions of the time. [Helmut Thielicke] (p.58)
“Scriptures contain a body of divinely given information actually expressed or capable of being expressed in propositions” [Carl Henry] contrast with: “ categories we employ in theology are by necessity culturally and historically conditioned, and as theologians each of us is both ‘ a child of the times’ and a communicator to those times.” [Stanley Grenz] (p59.)
The humble theologian is open to correction and further reform of thought and life. Again, the Reformation slogan semper reformanda (always reforming) in the light of God’s word is sound. The unteachable theologian is an oxymoron. (p.60)
Our theological awareness shows itself in our prayers. (p.62)“If you are a theologian, you will pray truly. And if you pray truly, you are a theologian.” [Evagrius Ponticus, 345/6-399] (p.62)
Augustine: “You move us to delight in praising You. You have made us for Yourself, and our hearts are restless until they rest in you.” The Confessions. (p64)
Reason must not be reified as though it were a thing separate from us. Reason does not function on its own, in a spiritual vacuum. Persons reason. Persons mount arguments, question, or demolish them, and marshall or dismiss evidence. And persons do that either in submission to God or in conflict with him.(p.70)
…there is a moral dimension to knowing ….”Logic is rooted in Ethic, for the truth we see depends upon the men we are” [P T Forsyth]…Forsyth must not be misunderstood. He did not argue that the truth depends upon the kind of moral agents we are. But our ability to recognize the truth, see the truth, has a moral component. Virtue epistemology has its place. (p.71)
It is also important to recognise that the possession of knowledge does not guarantee either virtue or wisdom. Paul wrote to the Corinthians how knowledge can puff one up. (p71,fn3)
Sin causes not a cognitive disability but an affective disinclination to trust in God, honour him, or give thanks to him. (p.72)
Dogmatic rank is fundamental to wise theological thinking. The phrase means that teachings need to be ranked, and the ranking has to do with importance for faithfulness and fellowship. [cf Jesus’ discussions with the Pharisees and scribes re tithing mint, dill and cummin, but neglecting the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. (p.76)
“In the essential, unity, and in the non-essentials, liberty, and in all things, clarity. [Rupertus Meldenius (1582-165, Lutheran theologian]. (p. 78)
It is so easy to think that only the imaginable is conceivable. (p.79)
Criteria for judgment of theological claims: a) is it scriptural? b) is it rational (i.e. is it nonsense of self-contradictory? c) is it liveable…am I able to live as though my claim or theological proposal were true? (p. 82)
Four questions for theological proposals: (i) factual? (ii) semantic – i.e. what does the word mean? (iii) moral? (iv) pastoral? [p84f)
Anselm: Faith seeking understanding. (p.101 fn) “Neque enim quaero intelligere ut credam, sed credo ut intelligam” (“I do not seek to understand in order that I may believe, but rather, I believe in order that I may understand”).
Luther: Life is lived coram Deo (before God). (p105)
Doing theology then is a way of loving God with our minds, hopefully renewed minds in the Pauline sense. (p105)